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BV 3277 .084 M64 1887 j 
Moffat, James Clement, 1811 
1890 I 

The story of a dedicated 

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THE STORY 



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J^e<£pk Owen 



A DEDICATED LIFE 



REV. JAMES C. '^MOFFAT, D. D. 



CIk ^riuteton ^ress : 

C. 8. ROBINSON & CO.. PRINCETON, N. J. 

1887. 



Copyright, 1887, by 
James C. Moffat, D.D. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Chapter I. 
Days of Education, .--.-.--l 

Chapter II. 
A voyage round the Cape of Good Hope, _ . . - 9 

Chapter III. 
A missionary voyage on the Ganges fifty years ago, - - 17 

Chapter IV. 
Allahabad — its religious character — the mission station — 

preliminary work of the missionary, - - - - 33 

Chapter V. 
Population, languages, and religious changes in Upper India, 

and the relations of the Presbyterian Mission thereto, 46 

Chapter VI. 
Education of the Heathen, -------61 

Chapter VII. 
General progress, and the events of missionary work, - 74 

Chapter VIII. 
Translation and publication, - - - - - - 89 

Chapter IX. 
The mission at Allahabad during the Sepoy mutiny, - - 100 

Chapter X. 
An attempt at return to mission work, - - - - 122 

Chapter XI. 
From Calcutta to Furrukhabad, in the trail of the mutiny, 

and through Lord Clyde's army, . - - - - 134 

Chapter XII. 
Restoration of the mission, ------- 156 

Chapter XIII. 
A trip to Simla, and in the Himalaya, ----- 172 

Chapter XIV. 
Work completed, ---- 178 



THE STORY OF A DEDICATED LIFE. 



CHAPTEE I. 

DAYS OF EDUCATION. 

Among the youth pursuing their studies at Princeton, 
in the year 1834, there were a few, who regularly met 
weekly, for rehgious improvement. Their association was 
called the Philadelphian Society, from its purpose to pro- 
mote the feeling of Christian brotherhood in its members 
and through them among mankind. Singly, or in commit- 
tees, they collected information of the moral and religious 
condition of their own and other countries. And among 
the enterprises of the time most interesting to them was 
that of Christian missions to the heathen. 

On entering the society in those days, there were some 
names with which a newcomer soon became familiar, not 
because those who bore them were obtrusive in any way, 
but from the general deference paid to their characters 
and opinions. Such were especially Morrison, Dougherty, 
Freeman, Owen, Janvier, and Canfield. It is pleasant to 
think of them as they were then, just entering upon man- 
hood, or aj^proaching it, full of energy, buoyant with hope 
and elevated with the sentiment of a lofty purpose. The 
burden of their conversation, at all times, among them- 
selves, was alleviation of the ills of human life, the salva- 
tion of souls, the glory of God, the Saviour, and the means 
through which they hoped to be useful to those ends. 
There is a nobility in the self -forgetting consecration of 



2 DAYS OF EDUCATION. 

pious youth. In many cases it wearies and fails in the 
struggle with the world. In the case of that little group, 
it never suffered debasement. The purj^ose of their youth 
ripened into the execution of their maturer years. At a 
time when foreign missionary work was still new to most 
of our Protestant churches, and viewed with more appre- 
hension, and attended with more privation and danger 
than it is now, they all offered themselves on the altar of 
that sacrifice, and never afterwards shrunk from the duties 
thus incurred, or ever revoked their choice. 

Joseph Owen, then about twenty years of age, was 
already marked by a maturity of purpose, which, while it 
made him unattractive to those who lived for pleasure, 
enlisted on his behalf the respect of earnest and studious 
men. Of stature above the medium, of staid demeanor, 
profoundly modest, and yet self-possessed, there was a 
gentle dignity in his address, which effectually defended 
him against offensive intrusion, and could easily become 
severe upon violation of its bounds, while always ready to 
warm into a beam of affection for a friend. He was a 
native of Bedford, Westchester County, New York, a son 
of James and Lucretia Merrit Owen, born on the 14th of 
June, 1814. His father, a man of highly estimable char- 
acter, died while his son was yet under ten years of age. 
His mother, a pious member of the Presbyterian church in 
Bedford, endeavored to bring up her children in the knowl- 
edge and fear of the Lord. Joseph early evinced a superior 
capacity for acquisition of learning, and a desire to become 
a minister of the Gospel. 

In the course of his studies with a view to that end, he 
was encouraged by his pastor, the Rev. Jacob G-reen, who 
also employed him, during college vacations, in Christian 



DATS OF EDUCATION. 6 

effort, equally profitable to his own spiritual life, and pre- 
paratory for his contemplated work. Mr. Green was one 
of those who formed the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions, and was its recording secretary for many years. 
To him and his excellent lady was Mr. Owen greatly in- 
debted for that Christian influence which entered into the 
formation of his character. In October, 1832, he entered 
the Sophomore class at Princeton. Before the session had 
far advanced, he was ranked among the best scholars of 
the class, and had taken his place with those who in the 
Philadelphian Society were banded together in the cause of 
practical rehgion. 

Oren K. Canfield was a man of few words, whose reli- 
gion was severe, and his deportment grave. He had taken 
leave of the world when he gave himself to Christ, and no 
longer admitted of tampering with any of its ways. But 
the sombre manner covered warm and gentle affections, 
which needed only the approach of Christian fellowship to 
elicit. He was a moderate scholar, and faithful in appli- 
cation, but believed that all effort after class honors, and 
all manifestations of himself, belonged to that spirit of the 
world which he sought to resist and mortify. Severe to 
himself, he was considerate and forgiving to others, and 
willing to be spent for the salvation of his fellow-men. 
Maturer experience might have taught him that a man 
hmits his usefulness in thus denying himself; but his 
serious, single minded, devoted life was early laid down, 
in the front rank — the forlorn hope of missionary effort on 
the west coast of Africa. And I have no doubt that it was 
laid down as bravely, with as complete a resignation as if 
it had followed a victory. When I think of that quiet, 
self-contained, seldom speaking young man, moving about 



4 DAYS OF EDUCATION. 

among us, with only one great aim absorbing his being, 
not despising perhaps, but having no heart for our college 
distinctions, his careful and solemn spiritual preparation 
for his contemplated work, and his death in the breach, 
before a foothold within the fortress was won, there are 
none of my young companions whom I remember with a 
more respectful tenderness than Oren K. Canfield. 

John E. Freeman had come from the workshop. Schol- 
arship was to him only means to an end, in itself nothing — 
a mere retort, which might be broken and thrown away 
when the end it was made for was accomplished. And that 
end, as far as he was concerned, was preparation for the 
(xospel ministry among the heathen. Converted from the 
midst of profligate companions, whom he saw hastening on 
to ruin, he was filled with a sense of the atrocity of sin, its 
prevalence and power in the world, and of the calamitous 
condition of the nations where no gospel interfered with 
the full development of its fruits in misery. Anything 
was, in his estimation, valuable which went to qualify him 
the better to proclaim the Grospel to the heathen, that he 
might be the means of staying, as much as he possibly 
could, the overwhelming tide of sin. What did not look to 
that end was nothing in his eyes. Classics, Philosophy, 
Science, professors the most learned or the most eloquent ; 
were nothing in themselves, only means. The gi'eat end in 
view swallowed up everything. From the day of his con- 
version until he left his native land was one unabating 
rush of preparation. He could not wait to complete his 
apprenticeshiiD, nor proceed by the slow method of self- 
education, but bought up the remainder of his time, rapidly 
finished his preparation in the Grammar School, went im- 
mediately from College into the Theological Seminary, and 



DAYS OF EDUCATION. 5 

was ready to set out for the foreign field assigned him, as 
soon as he had completed the theological course. Every- 
thing undertaken by him was marked by the same almost 
impatient rapidity. What was once done, was done ; if 
perfectly, well ; if imperfectly, so much the worse, but never 
to be recurred to, unless it belonged to the tasks of recur- 
ring duty. His rapidity of movement, the sparkle of his 
eye, his quick, but clear and distinct utterance, and the 
animation and firmness of his countenance all spoke the 
man of resolute purpose and dispatch in execution. Such, 
not as a scholar, but in whatever was put into his hands 
to do, was his clear exj3editious discharge of duty, until the 
day when he fell in the massacre at Cawnpore. 

A careful culture from infancy in a refined Christian 
family had prepared Levi Janvier to take with facility a 
place among the first honor men of his class. His scholar- 
ship was not extensive but precise and true, firmly appre- 
hended, and held at deliberate command. There was no 
halting in his recitations: they were clear and complete. 
But beyond the studies assigned to the class, in that direc- 
tion, he cared not to go. Scholarship, although he ex- 
celled and took pleasure in it, was not his aim; it was pre- 
paration to preach the Grospel ; and he labored to be well 
prepared. His opinions were as precise as his scholarship. 
Earnestly above all other things desiring the salvation of 
men, he did not conceive of that end as being attainable 
except by the path of sound Calvinism. The same precision 
was a feature of his manner and dei3ortment. And yet 
there was about him always and invariably, and in him 
intrinsically, a sweet and gentle courtesy, the genuine out- 
growth of a heart glowing with Christian love. Another 
such combination of wann, really tender outgoing affec- 



6 DATS OF EDUCATION. 

tion, with severe, precise self-culture I have never known. 
It was always the same. The two features of character 
did not alternate in him, they were harmoniously blended. 
Whatever moods of mind he may have been subject to, 
they never ruffled the serenity of his outer life. In maturer 
years, it was the gentler element of his nature which 
preponderated. His death in India by the hands of an 
assassin was an event which no common passion could 
explain. 

Joseph Owen associated freely with his fellow-students, 
but with those now mentioned his relations were most in- 
timate, through both his collegiate and theological course. 
And the benefit which he derived from their society was 
perhaps well balanced by that which he conferred. Of all 
the group he alone took a real interest in learning, not 
merely for the ends to be reached by it, but also for its 
own sake. In that love of knowledge which wrestles with 
difficulties cordially, and rests not until they are mastered, 
he was excelled by none of his compeers, while the eleva- 
tion and equableness of his Christian life was often a sup- 
port to friends subject to more fluctuating moods. After 
receiving his first degree in College in September, 1835, he 
entered the Theological Seminary in Princeton. There 
employed in studies more completely within the range of 
his purposes for life, he distinguished himself by great 
superiority of attainment. Especially in the department 
of Biblical literature, and Oriental languages, he earned 
the highest commendations of Dr. Joseph Addison Alex- 
ander, then entering upon the prime of his own brilliant 
career. His theological course was extended to four years, 
during three of which he was also mathematical tutor in 
college; and in that capacity acquitted himself with his 



DAYS OF EDUCATION. 7 

usual industry and success. It was with a view the better 
to prepare for his contemplated work in an oriental mis- 
sion by fortifying himself in the oriental languages under 
the instructions of Professors Alexander and Nordheimer 
that he took the additional year. With the latter he pur- 
sued the study of Arabic and Sanskrit. By the end of 
that time he had read with strict grammatical care the 
whole of the Hebrew Bible, and in Arabic the whole of the 
Koran, and made considerable progress in the classical 
language of India, besides exceeding the measure of the 
studies assigned to the classes in other departments. 

At the close of the session of 1839, which then occurred 
in September, he left Princeton, and was ordained by the 
Presbytery of Westchester at Bedford on the second of 
October following. Immediately afterwards he was ap- 
pointed by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions to 
their recently selected field in Northern India. For a few 
months, including the winter of 1839-40, and the succeed- 
ing Spring, he acted as an agent of the Board in some of 
the middle States. His friends, Morrison and Freeman, 
had already preceded him to India, the fonner, in 1838, 
and the latter, in 1839. And in the same year in which 
Morrison went to the east, Dougherty had gone to the 
west, and commenced his mission among the Chippewa 
and Ottawa tribes, to whose spiritual interests his life was, 
in all its best energies, devoted. 

On the third of August, 1840, Mr. Owen took leave of 
his mother and sisters and younger brother and of all the 
nearest and dearest to him, to go forth in the service of his 
Lord to preach the Grospel to the heathen. That parting 
cost him inexpressible suffering; he never recurs to it in 
his journals or letters without a fresh outburst of emotion; 



8 DAYS OF EDUCATION. 

for he was a man in whom the social affections were warm 
and tender. But even in that crisis of trial I feel assured 
that the thought of drawing back, — the thought that this is 
a too expensive way of doing good — never for a moment 
occurred. Dedication to missionary work had become a 
part of himself. It had ceased to be a question before his 
mind. As such it had been closed up long ago, never more 
to be opened. It was the decree of God for him. He knew 
that it would cost self-denial. But his mind was made up 
for self-denial. What it would cost was no longer to be 
considered. He had summed up all that when he gave 
himself to the Lord. Nor was this separation from all 
he loved most dearly upon earth designed to be temporary. 
In his view it was final. The devotion of himself was 
without reserve. It was to live and die in his work. When 
a friend remonstrated with him, "Why incur such ex- 
posure to an unhealthy climate ? You may not live long," 
" I do not expect to live long," was his reply, "Some must 
go to begin the work." His going to what he felt to be 
duty was not to depend upon the chances of life. Yet that 
entire self -dedication was not made in a stem and gloomy 
spirit: he did not go to his life's work like one going to 
execution ; for asceticism was no part of his nature, which 
was genial and sociable; but not the less was the self- 
consecration irreversible. 

On the second morning after that parting, Mr. Owen 
sailed from Boston, in the barque "Eugene," Captain 
Whitney, upon the long voyage round the Cape of G-ood 
Hope. He went in company with his friends of the Theol- 
ogical Seminary, the Eev. John C. Rankin, and Wilham H. 
M'Auley, who with their wives and Miss Jane Vanderveer, 
a teacher, were all appointed to the missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Northern India. 



VOYAOE TO INDIA. 



CHAPTER II. 

A VOYAGE ROUND THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

A montli after leaving Boston the missionaries were far 
down on the coast of Africa, opposite Sierra Leone. And 
thus did Mr. Owen express himself: "We have been sailing 
about thirty hours nearly east, and drawing nearer and 
nearer to that dark and benighted peninsula. It is indeed 
melancholy to think of the millions, now so near us, that 
are sunk to the lowest depths of degradation and wretch- 
edness." A few months earlier, his friend and fellow- 
member of the Philadelphian Society, the Rev. Oren K. 
Canfield, in company with Mr. Pinney and Jonathan P. 
Alward, a younger member of the same society, and stu- 
dent of the Theological Seminary in Princeton, had passed 
along that coast, on an exploring visit, to select a place for 
a missionary station. They had determined upon one 
among the Kroo people, about half way between Cape 
Palmas and Monrovia; and now were again at home 
preparing for the occupation of it. Four months later, in 
February, 1841, Canfield and Alward returned to begin 
their work with buoyant hopes in the new and vast 
field which lay before them, — hopes early disappointed. 
The malaria of that fatal coast carried off Alward almost 
as soon as he approached it ; and in May of the next year, 
Canfield followed him to the grave. Their companions 
returned home, with exception of one colored teacher, who 
survived to conduct his work. But self-sacrifice for that 
part of Africa was not at an end. The Rev. Robert Sawyer, 



10 VOYAGE TO INDIA. 

also of the Philadelphian Society, arrived with his wife at 
Monrovia in December, 1841, and proceeded to Settra Kroo, 
to take up the work of those departed friends, whom he 
had expected to assist. He did not long survive them. 
In December, 1843, he also fell a victim to the climate. 
But ere that date the work of Christian instruction had 
been successfully established, schools had been put into 
prosperous operation, which Mrs. Sawyer continued to 
conduct after her husband's death, while educated colored 
men were introduced to teach and preach the gospel to 
their countrymen. 

After thirty days' sailing down the coast of Africa, 
though never once coming in sight of it, the " Eugene" 
had passed beyond the extreme point of the continent into 
the Southern ocean. On the third of October, Mr. Owen 
wrote in his journal, "We are now far in the dreary 
South, where we seem to ourselves to be almost out of the 
world. We expect to cross the meridian of London to- 
morrow. We are south of the Cape of G-ood Hope, but on 
account of a strong current which sets in from Madagascar, 
it is customary on an outward voyage to India, to sail as 
far up as the 38th or 39th degree of south latitude, before 
making much easting. What is called ' Doubling the Cape' 
is therefore sailing thus far south, and then turning and 
/ going east about five or six thousand miles. We expect to 
\ be in cold weather about a month, and truly the prospect 
is not a very cheering one. We can have no fire, and with 
all the bundling-up convenient for us, we can hardly keep 
warm. October 4th. Sabbath. My thoughts have been 
much in Bedford to-day. how delighted would my 
heart have been to join with my dear friends once more in 
commemorating the Saviour's dying love. I love to think 



VOYAGE TO INDIA. 11 

of that place where I first pubhcly dedicated myself to 
God, where I was for years fed with the sincere milk of 
the Word, where I have often held sweet communion with 
many dear Christian friends, where I received license to 
preach the everlasting Gospel, and where I was solemnly 
ordained to the work of the holy ministry." 

Without any event worthy of notice, the protracted 
imprisonment of the missionaries terminated on the twenty- 
fourth of December, by their landing at Calcutta. 

" The natural scenery, which we pass in going up 
the river, is very beautiful. The deep rich green, which 
covers the banks, is most delightful to the eyes, after see- 
ing nothing but ocean and sky for nearly five months. 
This evening, when walking the deck, I could not wonder 
that India had been painted by so many as a sort of fairy 
land. All was calm, nothing was to be heard but the 
voice of natives on the shore, or from the water, and the 
paddling of their oars up and down the yellow Hoogly. 
The water was smooth as glass, and gave a perfect reflec- 
tion of the western sky, after the sun had sunk beneath the 
horizon. Here indeed 

'Every prospect pleases 
And only man is vile.' 

The noble array of palaces, gardens and gi'oves, on both 
sides of us, as we passed, presented a picture of luxury and 
magnificence. There was, however, a defect in the appear- 
ance of the buildings : they were too low, not more than 
two stories high. There was also a sameness in the scen- 
ery, which I could not help contrasting with the beauti- 
ful variety of that on the Hudson." 

On the dav following their arrival in Calcutta, thev met 



12 VOYAGE TO INDIA. 

with Gopinath Nundy, from the mission at Futtehgurh, 
who proved of great assistance to them in making arrange- 
ments for their journey. 

In Calcutta they found true friends among the Eng- 
.H.<wv I ]-gj^ g^j^^ American residents, who extended to them every 
kindness they could expect. During the two weeks spent 
in that city Mr. Owen visited some of the public institu- 
tions of which he wrote home interesting accounts. On 
his first Sunday in Calcutta he worshipped at the Scottish 
Kirk and heard Dr. Duff preach in the morning, and Dr. 
Charles in the evening. Some of Dr. Duff's speeches and 
sermons had been much admired in America, and Mr. 
Owen's expectations were high. He testifies that they 
were not disappointed. That first Lord's Day in a heathen 
land made a deep impression upon his mind. " The streets 
of Calcutta present the same appearance on the Sabbath 
as on other days. The multitudes that we see during the 
week are also thronging the streets to-day, and are busied 
about their usual concerns. Their shops and bazars, or 
markets, are all open, some are carrying palkis, others 
driving carts loaded with goods, the Bhistis, or water car- 
riers, are going about with their leathern water bags hang- 
ing from their shoulders, hawkers are going about the 
streets trying to sell light articles, and others are going to 
and fro, seeming hardly to know where. Under my win- 
dow there is a constant hum of voices engaged either in 
business or amiisement. Think of the difficulty of keeping 
one's heart in such circumstances. If this is admitted to 
be so difficult in a Christian land, where so many external 
advantages combine to favor one's efforts, what must it be 
here, where everything is unfavorable, where Satan reigns 
with almost unlimited control ? But the name of the 



VOYAGE TO INDIA. 13 

Lord is a strong tower, to which the righteous may con- 
tinually resoi-t." 

Some delay being occasioned by difficulty in procuring 
suitable boats and other necessaries for the voyage up the 
river, Mr. Owen took the opportunity to see many objects 
of interest in the great Anglo-Indian city. Among other 
such, he visited the premises of the Baptist mission, on 
what is called the Circular Eoad, and the Bishop's college 
down the river. 

On the second of January he writes as follows: "No 
words are adequate to express the feelings raised by what 
I have seen to-day. I have been at the Scotch school, V 
where six hundred heathen youth are receiving a Christian 
education. And such an exhibition of order, mental vigor, 
and thorough instruction, I have never before seen. This 
school is uprooting in the minds of all who are taught in 
it, the whole system of Hinduism. It was formed little 
more than ten years ago, stands near the centre of the 
native town, in an extensive open place, and is advantage- 
ously situated for coolness, the greatest object toward 
comfortable living to be attained in the selecting of build- 
ing locations in this country. The school building has 
only one story, and is therefore spread over a large surface 
of ground." 

"It was delightful on entering the school room of Dr 
Duff, to cast the eye over five hundred Hindu childi-en, 
di'essed in the native costume, arranged in classes, each of 
which was formed into a square with a monitor standing 
within proposing questions and hearing the recitations. 
Most of their countenances were sprightly and intelligent. 
We were first taken to the lowest class, and went from 
that up. These were most of them very young children. 



14 VOYAGE TO INDIA; 

say from five to eight years of age, all learning the English 
alphabet, through the medium of Bengali, their native 
tongue, and taught by natives. The next two or three 
classes were small grades higher, consisting of those who 
had learned to combine the letters into syllables or short 
words. A little further on were classes learning Scrij^ture 
truths in the way of question and answer, as ' Who made 
all things?' 'G-od.' ' What is Grod ? ' 'He is a spirit.' 
*Can He see you?' 'Yes.' 'Can you see Him?' 'No.' — 
a new idea to a Hindu mind, and striking at the root of 
their enormous fabric of superstition. Still higher were 
those who could read, and further on were classes learn- 
ing English Grammar, then Arithmetic, G-eography, and 
some simply composed history. In an adjoining room 
were classes studying some more extended works on G-eo- 
graphy and History, and learning Euclid's Elements and 
Astronomy." 

"After this we went into another department, where 
some of the highest branches of mathematics, history, the 
physical sciences, mental and moral science, evidences of 
Christianity and doctrinal theology are taught." 

"I can truly say that I never before saw such an ad- 
mirable display of mind as was exhibited during this 
examination. It is not extravagant to say that it was far 
beyond anything that may be seen among the large major- 
ity of students in our colleges and theological seminaries. 
The young men showed that they had not only read on 
those subjects, but had thought carefully and profoundly 
for themselves. 

" The ages of the members of this department were, I 
should judge, from sixteen to twenty-four, or twenty-six. 
They have learned to speak English with ease, and most of 



VOYAGE TO INDIA. 15 

them take pleasure in reading the Bible in our language. 
A lecture is delivered to them every Sabbath evening in 
the institution, which is well attended. I was present 
last Sabbath evening, and saw almost every eye directed 
towards the speaker, and whenever he referred to a text of 
Scripture, they had their Bibles at hand, and readily 
found it. None of them board in the institution, and it is 
entirely optional with them whether they shall attend any 
of the exercises of the school or not. It is remarkable that 
even during their great festivals, they nearly all come. 
The Bible is carefully taught every day, yet so great is 
their desire to obtain a knowledge of the English language, 
that they are willing to learn the Christian religion for the 
sake of the language, through which it is communicated. 
Science seems to assume a religious importance in this 
country. Nothing does more towards the subversion of 
Hinduism than the teaching of true notions connected 
with the physical sciences, since a large part of it is based 
on and mingled with false assumptions in reference to the 
natural world. The government schools, established in 
different parts of the country, teach the English language, 
and give the pupils access to our sciences, but carefully ex- 
clude the Christian religion from their course of instruc- 
tion. The consequence of this must be that as they lose 
confidence in their own religion, and have no other to sub- 
stitute in the place of it, they will be transformed from 
idolators into sceptics and infidels. Such a result every 
Christian heart must deprecate." 

On the fifth of January, he writes: "I went this morn- 
ing to a missionary prayer meeting. It is customary with 
the missionaries in Calcutta of all denominations, on the 
first Tuesday morning of every month, to meet at half -past 



16 VOYAGE TO INDIA. 

seven for prayer. They have breakfast at the place where 
they assemble, and then spend some hours together in con- 
ference, discussing questions of practical importance to 
them in the prosecution of their labors." 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 17 



CHAPTEE III. 

A MISSIONARY VOYAGE ON THE GANGES, FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

The enterprise, which Mr. Owen and his companions 
were now proceeding to join, was commenced in the year 
1834, by the Eev. John C. Lowrie, under direction of the 
Western Foreign Missionary Society. In the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States, foreign missionary effort 
made its beginning in the action of the Synod of Pitts- 
burgh, October, 1831. On that occasion the society now 
mentioned was organized, "with the hope of calHng into 
action the slumbering energies of the Presbyterian Church 
in the gi*eat work of sending the Gospel of salvation to the 
perishing heathen." Its appeal to the church declared 
that, although the Society "originated in the Synod of 
Pittsburg, it was composed of the ministers, sessions and 
churches, not only of that body, but of any other Synod or 
Synods, Presbytery or Presbyteries, that formally unite 
with them." In 1837, the G-eneral Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian church appointed a Board of Foreign Missions. 
And to that the Western Society transferred itself with all 
its missions and funds. 

In 1833 the Western Foreign Missionary Society 
resolved to attempt something toward aiding in the evan- 
gelization of India. In October of that year the first mis- 
sionaries, the Eev. Messrs. W. Eeed and J. C. Lowrie with 
their wives, arrived at Calcutta. There they took counsel 
of English Christians, long resident in India, among whom 
were the Eev. William Pearce, of the English Baptist mis- 



18 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

sion, the Rev. Dr. Duff, of the Scottish mission, and Sir 
Charles Trevelyan, one of the secretaries in the civil service 
of the East India Company, who had resided in the upper 
country. They were on all hands encouraged, according to 
their first j^urpose, to proceed to the extreme northwest 
of the provinces then under British rule. It was a country 
recently opened to missionary effort, but in great measure 
unoccupied ; it lay in a relation to other heathen countries 
west and north of it, "which suggested the hope that the 
Gospel might be eventually extended from thence into the 
heart of central Asia," and the superior energy of its 
people as compared with those of the lower provinces sug- 
gested greater expectations from their instrumentality in 
subsequent progress. 

Lodiana, a city on the river Sutlej, the most eastern 
tributary of the Indus, was selected as the station to be 
first occupied. But only one member of that company was 
ever to see the place. Mrs. Lowrie died in Calcutta, and 
Mr. Reed's failing health constrained him to abandon the 
attempt to proceed further. Accompanied by his wife he 
turned his face homeward, but died on the way. Mr. 
Lowrie, having arrived at Lodiana in November, 1834, 
was almost immediately prostrated by disease, and upon 
his recovery urged by his medical advisors to return home, 
as his constitution could not stand that climate. Still un- 
willing to leave the post until others should arrive to 
occupy it, he remained over a year doing pioneer work, 
which proved of value to his successors. 

In December, 1835, the Rev. John Newton and the 
Rev. James Wilson, with their wives arrived, and took up 
the work which Mr. Lowrie had begun. Thus relieved he 
left Lodiana, and at Calcutta, in the month of March, met 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 19 

a third company, consisting of William S. Rogers, James 
R. Campbell, James M'Ewen, Jesse M. Jamieson, and 
Joseph Porter, ministers, with their wives. It was his 
privilege to welcome them upon their landing, and to aid 
them in preparing for their inland journey. By this com- 
pany three new stations were occupied, Allahabad, at the 
jimction of the Granges and Jumna ; Saharunpur, about 
one hundred and thirty miles southeast of Lodiana, and 
Sabathu, one hundred and ten miles to the northeast from 
the same place. 

The station at Allahabad was planted by M'Ewen, in 
1836, and a church of thirteen members constituted next 
January. " Besides preaching M'Ewen gave part of his 
time to the charge of schools, in which he was greatly 
assisted by his equally devoted wife. But they were not 
permitted to continue long in those labors." From loss of 
health M'Ewen was constrained to leave India, in 1838; 
and as the station was of too much importance to be left 
unoccupied, Wilson came from Lodiana to take his place. 

At Calcutta, M'Ewen met a fourth company, consist- 
ing of three ministers, John H. Morrison, Henry R. Wilson, 
and Joseph Caldwell, with James Craig, a teacher, and 
Reese Morris, a printer, with their wives. Mrs. Morrison 
died before leaving Calcutta. The rest proceeded to vari- 
ous stations abeady planted, Morrison to Allahabad, to 
assist Wilson, Caldwell and Craig to Saharunpur, and 
Morris to Lodiana. H. R. Wilson, on his way to Lodiana, 
was induced to stop at Futtehgurh on the Granges, two 
himdred miles above Allahabad. 

During the terrible famine which prevailed in the pre- 
ceding year, (1837) a number of destitute and starving 
children had been collected and provided for at Futtehghur 



20 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

by Dr. Madden, a pious physician in the East India Com- 
pany's service. Captain Wheeler, also in the same neigh- 
borhood, had gathered a similar group of helpless outcasts, 
and earnestly wished to find some person to take charge of 
them, who might be better qualified for the task than he 
thought himself to be. H. E. Wilson was applied to, and 
took up his residence at Futtehgurh. There with his 
interesting charge of orphan children, and assisted by 
Gopinath Nundy, a native teacher, previously employed in 
their instruction, he entered upon important labors, which, 
; although doomed to a fearful interruption, have been 
•steadily prosecuted by other hands. 

Five stations were now constituted, but still only feebly 
manned. A fifth company arrived in the spring of 1839, 
consisting of the Rev. Messrs. John E. Freeman, Joseph 
Warren, and James L. Scott, with their wives, who were 
all assigned to the lower stations. Freeman and Warren 
remained at Allahabad, and Scott joined H. E. Wilson at 
Futtehgurh. 

It was with no little pleasure that the missionaries 
thus already on the ground, heard of a new company on its 
way to join them. According to orders received from the 
Board, before leaving their native land, the members of that 
sixth comj)any were j^roceeding, Joseph Owen to Allahabad, 
and M'Auley and Eankin and Miss Vanderveer to Futteh- 
gurh. 

Of the five stations the most important, it was thought, 
were Lodiana and Allahabad, at the northwestern and 
southeastern extremities respectively of the field occupied. 
Lodiana was of importance as looking to the then un- 
occupied and independent Punjab ; Allahabad, as a central 
point in Northern India, an important business depot, and 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 21 

a place of great resort for Hindu and Mohammedan 
pilgrims. ^cK.^ 7 - ^:>-^v^^\ 3 -^^ 

In their voyage up the Ganges, the missionaries availed 
themselves of every opportunity to learn the character and 
habits of the people, as well as to mark with interest the 
footsteps of preceding Christian enterprise. On the morn- 
ing after leaving Calcutta, being Sunday, they anchored 
off Serampore, a place associated in their minds with the 
first Baptist mission to India. A thick fog prevented them 
from getting ashore in time to attend church in the fore- 
noon, and they had service on the boat; but in the even- 
ing they went ashore, and were received with kindness by 
the missionaries. In compliance with an urgent invitation, 
they returned next morning, and visited the house in which 
Dr. Carey had lived, and other premises of the Baptist 
mission, and with especial interest their printing and pub- 
lishing establishment, where their whole business of book- 
making was carried on. But a sense of duty and desire to 
be at their own field of labor caused the visit to be brief. 

The scenery through which they passed, for a great dis- 
tance, Mr. Owen describes as beautiful exceedingly, as some 
creation of fancy might be, gardens, sumptuous residences, 
cultivated grounds, and temples on the margin of the 
river, among trees of richest verdure, and animated by 
multitudes of people. But a nearer sight of the inhab- 
itants was always of a nature to dispel enchantment. One 
evening they fastened their budgerows by a sandy beach, 
and Owen, with M'Auley and G-opinath, went out on shore 
for a walk. At a short distance back from the river they 
came to a village, and while in the bazar, they heard a 
loud singing and drumming at a distance. "I had the curi- 
ositv," writes Mr. Owen, "to see what it was. As we came 



22 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

near, Gopee could distinguish their words (they were 
Bengali) and found that they were singing to the honor 
of one of their gods. It was a comj^lete frolic, and looked 
more like what we call a rowdy, than like anything con- 
nected with religion. I was glad to turn away from the 
unpleasant sight." 

The journey up the river was slow, only from eight to 
twelve miles a day : and sometimes the boats were delayed 
for several hours, allowing walks of considerable length 
into the country. On one such occasion, they stopped at 
the large village of Calna. While the other missionaries 
went to purchase provisions, Mr. Owen started out on a 
walk to see what was worth seeing. " The dwellings 
were all of native construction, built of mud, and not a 
single European building could be seen. On ascending 
the bank, I observed some Hindu temples back of the 
village, and determining to gratify my curiosity, went to 
them, although without any guide. I passed the thronged 
streets unmolested, every one giving way to the Sahih. As 
I came near, I found that the temj^les were within a high 
enclosure. On the outside was a large bazar crowded with 
people, but all gave way to me, and I passed along as 
though I was perfectly acquainted with them, their country 
and their language. I determined to see all I could, and 
go on until I was stoj^ped. After going back of the high 
white enclosure, I came to a large pool of water in a 
grove, where many were bathing. A little further on was 
a temple perfectly round, but I could see no entrance. In 
a small yard near, stood a camel, and at a short distance 
was a car, on which were images of gods and carved 
horses. I now found an entrance to the large enclosure, 
and walked in. Here was a large and beautiful garden. 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 23 

containing a great variety of flowers, and laid out and kept 
with much care. These flowers are raised for the jDurj^ose 
of being carried into the temples and offered to the gods. 
I had a great desire to enter one of the temples, to see what 
was there. As I came to the door of one, I met two men, 
and asked them if I might enter. Although I could not 
understand a word they said, I perceived they wished me 
not to go. One of my feet was just over the threshold of 
the gate, but as they seemed to remonstrate, I desisted. 
Gopee told me that had I gone in, I would probably have 
lost my life, as they think their temples profaned by the 
footsteps of a Sahib, and that they have a right, in such 
circumstances to kill him." 

The missionaries were now coasting along the borders 
of Beerbhoom, the ancient Aryan land of heroes, a country 
which after having suffered from ages of reckless despot- 
ism, had latterly been more than half desolated under the 
combined calamities of famine and the ravages of banditti 
and of wild animals. Fifty years before, approach to the 
river's bank would have been made at the risk of life from 
the attacks of tigers, bears and wild elephants. Now, 
through the regularity and efficient protection of a wiser 
government, industry had prevailed over the wilderness. 
The jungle had again been reclaimed, the tigers extermin- 
ated, and the elephants reduced to servitude. A rich and 
productive country and a peaceful population presented 
themselves on every side. Quietly industrious and patient, 
the peasantry seemed to be more disposed to dwell upon 
the observances and hopes of their religion than upon 
schemes of avarice or ambition. It seemed as if only the 
Grospel was needed to put them in possession of the best 
popular elements of civihzation.^ 



1. Hunter's Annals of Rural Bengal. 



24 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

On the twenty-eighth of January, the season for the 
worship of the goddess of Knowledge, the boats stopped 
in the evening at a large village called Jungipur, where 
there was an English station. Next morning, Mr. Owen 
in company with Mr. M'Auley walked into the village. 
"Almost at every corner stood a small temple. The Hindu 
temples, as far as I have yet seen, are quite small. At 
length we came to a large garden, the walks of which were 
paved, and on each was carved work of stone of various 
kinds. We entered, and saw an exhibition of considerable 
taste in its plan and execution. We saw the image of the 
goddess of Knowledge, adorned with various kinds of 
trinkets, fixed under a booth, with an image on each side 
of her, and before them were cast garlands of flowers in 
profusion, as offerings from the deluded i)eoj)le." 

In the afternoon, they went into the bazar to preach, 
and found a large concourse of natives full of bustle, and 
engaged in various kinds of trafiic. The duty of preaching 
was put upon Mr. Owen, and Modu Shodun acted as inter- 
preter. "We took our station in the street before some of 
the shops, and soon had a crowd of people around us. 
Just as I was about commencing, a procession came up, 
having two images of the goddess of Knowledge, beating 
drums, tom-toms, and other noisy instruments, making 
ludicrous gestures, burning incense to the images, with 
two men holding umbrellas over their heads. All their 
actions had more the appearance of buffoonery than of 
religious worship. In the strength of my Master I now 
commenced preaching the unsearchable riches of Christ in 
this stronghold of Satan, and to many souls, who had un- 
doubtedly never heard the precious gospel before. In gen- 
eral, good attention was given ; but it is with the Lord to 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 25 

bless his truth. At the close I announced to them that 
we had some books which would give them more informa- 
tion about the Saviour of whom I had been preaching. 
There was then a great and general rush, and the books 
were almost torn from our hands. We gave away a large 
number of tracts, and many gospels, all in Bengali. Thus 
did we cast our bread upon the waters. 

Just as I had done preaching, another procession came 
up bearing the images that we had seen in the morning, to 
which they were burning incense, beating drums and blow- 
ing on musical instruments, and making all the indecent 
gestures that accompanied the others. Soon another pro- 
cession with similar images and accompaniments followed, 
preceded by men on horses, and followed by men on a 
large elephant, all painted in various ways, and making 
horrible grimaces. It seemed indeed, as if the wicked 
one had been let loose, and was exerting his power with- 
out control. In the evening they brought the image of the 
goddess down to the water with great ceremony, music, 
noise and confusion, and amid the firing of crackers and 
guns, threw her into the sacred stream." 

How the missionaries sj)ent the Sabbath will appear 
from the following description. "We all assembled in our 
budgerow in the morning at ten, and had prayer and a 
short discourse, and afterward reading of the Scriptures in 
Bengalee and prayer in Hindustanee, by Gopeenath. In 
the afternoon, G-opee assembled the men on the bank, and 
read the Scriptures and talked to them. In the meantime 
M'Auley and myself went with Modu to a village a short 
distance from us, to preach and distribute books. We 
passed through a field where men w^ere busy ploughing. 
When we arrived at the village, one of the first objects 



26 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

that met our eyes was a large tree worshipped by the 
natives, under which was an image of the wife of Siva, 
one of their gods. We passed on a little further, and came 
to a shade where were some men winding yarn. Here we 
stationed ourselves, and Modu commenced reading a Ben- 
gali tract to three or four men. Others, as they passed 
by, stopped to listen, and in a short time, our assembly 
amounted to upwards of twenty. I then commenced 
preaching through my interpreter, telling them of the 
nature of God, the fallen condition of man^ and what has 
been done for our redemption. After I had been proceed- 
ing for some time, a man who had been listening with a 
contemptuous air and sneering countenance, seeing another 
of some influence on horseback, at a distance, went and 
brought him. He rode to us on his horse, and began rail- 
ing and ridiculing, and succeeded in disturbing us for a 
short time. Modu began to answer his objections, but I 
knew that in present circumstances, that would be of no 
use, and directed him to return to interpreting for me. 
We proceeded while the man continued his scoffing. At 
length, finding that he was not noticed, he sat and patiently 
listened to us. After I had done, I went and gave him a 
copy of the gospel of Mark, and some tracts, which he 
readily received. He asked, in a jeering way, if we thought 
these books were going to make them Christians. 

After leaving this village, we went a short distance to 
another, which w^as Mohammedan. Here we saw three 
or four men putting straw and other things around their 
cottages, and one of them, an old man, left his work to 
talk with us. A seat having been brought, I began con- 
versation with him, and asked him if he had ever heard of 
Jesus. He rej^hed that many years ago, a man came 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 27 

through their village, and told them something about him. 
I asked him if he believed that all men were sinners. He 
said he knew he himself was. I then explained to him, 
as well as I could through Modu, how he could be saved 
from the dreadful consequences of sin, and talked to him 
a long time, while he listened with much attention. We 
then gave him, and others around him, some books, and 
took leave. In the evening we all met again in our 
budgerow, for Bible class." 

So far, they had been saihng on the Hooglej, one of 
the outlets of the Granges. Next day they entered the main 
river, and found a majestic sheet of water spread before 
them, pouring in a current broad, deep and strong, all the 
collected tribute which the south side of the Himalaya 
pays to the ocean. On the evening of the succeeding day, 
they came in sight of the Rajmahal hiils, the first hills 
they had seen since coming to India. Central Bengal 
is an unbroken plain, the deposit of the great river, which 
still irrigates it with that net work of veins, by which its 
waters find their way to the sea. Although occasionally 
making an excursion on the shore, when their boats were 
delayed, and some hope of doing good, or of obtaining use- 
ful information occurred, most of their time was spent in 
study, with a view to prepai-ation for their proper work. 
All were busy, studying Hindi and Hindustani with Gop- 
inath as their teacher. They were favored in many respects 
by having him with them. He knew how to manage the 
boatmen infinitely better than they. And his advice and 
services as an interpreter were continually useful. Thus 
occupied, and with their rehgious exercises among them- 
selves, they moved on slowly through the desert country 
of Rajmahal. On Sunday, as usual, they fastened their 



28 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

boats to the shore and had both English and Bengali 
services for themselves and their servants. Nothing could 
be done on shore ; for no habitations of men were near. 

Just as the morning services closed, it was announced 
by one of the servants that a nabob was coming to see 
them. They immediately prepared to receive him, ''and 
Gopee went and brought him in. Instead of seeing a large 
man with a splendid retinue, as we expected, a boy of six- 
teen or seventeen entered, with one servant following him. 
He was unable to speak a word of English. We could 
talk with him only through an interpreter. His name was 
Prince Yasseen. His father and family are confined at 
Calcutta as prisoners by the English. He showed us a 
written pemiission, which he had received, to be absent 
from Calcutta three months, for his health, and as it was 
in our language, he wished us to tell him what was in it. 
We told him he was going beyond the distance specified, 
and advised him to return, but told him he need not travel 
any more imtil to-morrow. He immediately left us, and 
went to his budgerow, and while I was waiting to have the 
necessary arrangements made for going to see him, to in- 
troduce the subject of Christianity to him, found that he 
had gone. Poor creature ! T suppose he thought we were 
Englishmen, and was afraid we would inform the govern- 
ment of his having gone so far." 

It was in passing through that dreary part of the 
country, where there was nothing to be seen but a sandy 
desert and the Rajmahal hills in the distance, that the 
missionaries made their first acc^uaintance with the Hindu 
Mela, or fair. "Hundreds of people were collected on the 
banks of the Granges from distant quarters, and here hav- 
ing pitched their tents, were exposing for sale native 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 29 

articles of great variety. The clouds of dust that could be 
seen at a great distance, directed us to the spot where they 
were, and when we arrived we found ourselves beneath a 
perj^etual shower of sand, and it would not have been dif- 
ficult to imagine Bedlam and Babel united, confusion 
doubly confounded. The tents were formed by fastening 
bamboo poles in the ground and throwing cloth over them, 
and spreading a piece of cloth on the ground for a carpet, 
on which the articles for sale were laid. Everything to 
be seen was well covered with sand. I was soon satisfied 
and glad to return to my peaceful room in the boat." 

At Monghir they were met by letters from Allahabad 
and from America, by the overland mail, filling their 
hearts with joy. But the tedious voyage became irksome 
to persons longing to be at the scene of their appointed 
labors. 

"Feb. 26. Heavy winds with clouds of sand greatly 
impeding our progress. These we are now to expect every 
day. The hot winds will soon come, and we are yet a 
long distance from Allahabad. We all begin to be much 
concerned. The boats move very slowly; and it is quite 
uncertain when we shall reach our journey's end." 

Having crossed the sandy waste, and entered upon the 
productive lands of central Bengal ; on the fifth of March 
Mr. Owen writes: "We have for a few days past been 
travelling through a beautiful country. To-day we passed 
Patna, a large city, highly celebrated, but as the sun was 
shining warm, a fine breeze was wafting us on, and we were 
desirous of making all possible speed while the wind so 
favored us, we did not stop. I begin to stammer Hindu- 
stani a little, and generally succeed in making myself 
understood to our servants and the boatmen." 



30 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

"March 7. Dinapore. This is the spot, where the 
devoted Henry Martyn spent a considerable part of his 
missionary life. Here he translated the New Testament 
into the Hindustani language. Last evening and this 
evening, I walked with feelings of peculiar interest over 
th3 place almost made sacred by his having dwelt here. 
No wonder his righteous soul was vexed from day to day. 
For not only are the natives deplorably corrupt, but some 
of the Europeans are not much better. My feelings were 
harrowed at the disgraceful conduct of three or four 
Englishmen at the Ghaut this evening. No wonder Martyn 
exclaimed 'Why do the heathen rage, and the English 
people imagine a vain thing.' Some of the greatest 
obstacles to the spre.id of the Gospel arise from the con- 
duct of those whom the natives regard as Christians." 

Walking on the bank of the river Mr. Owen was over- 
taken by a European indigo planter, who seemed desirous 
of forming his acquaintance. " He asked me if I was pass- 
ing up the river. I replied m the affirmative, and that I 
stopped to spend the Sabbath. 'Let me see,' said he, 'it 
is Sunday, is n't it? Do you always stop so on Sundays?* 
'We do, sir,' said I. 'But suppose you have a good wind, 
would you not go on ? ' ' No, sir.' ' Ought you not to take 
advantage of the blessing God gives us ? ' ' Certainly, and 
the Sabbath is one of his blessings, and we take advantage 
of it.' He then turned the conversation to some other 
subject, and when I was about to leave, he insisted that I 
should come and spend the day with him. I told him that 
I had company with me at the boat. He said they must 
all come too, and that he needed spiritual advice as well as 
others; for he had not been inside of a church in a long 
time. I tried to decline, but he insisted, and added that 



VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 31 

he would send a palankeen for Mrs. M'Auley, and accom- 
panied me to the boat to get an answer, and having re- 
ceived one in the affirmative, he in a few minutes had a 
palankeen sent to us, together with a dish of strawberries, 
flowers, etc. The wind blew very hard soon after we went, 
and the sand fle\v in such quantities as almost to suffocate. 
We were however sheltered, and spent the day more pleas- 
antly, in several respects, than we could have done in the 
budgerow. 

The gentleman had his family assembled, and invited 
us to conduct worship. It was an opjDort unity of doing 
good for which we felt truly thankful. He would not 
allow us to leave before evening, and perhaps it would 
have been imprudent for us to do so. We therefore had 
opportimity for religious conversation, which I pray may 
be followed by the divine blessing. When we left, he and 
his family accompanied us to the boat. He afterwards 
sent us several things to contribute to our comfort." 

At Benares, Mr. Owen left the boats and his compan- 
ions, for the purpose of visiting the British missionaries 
stationed in that city. The day was profitably and pleas- 
antly spent in hearing of their methods of instruction, in- 
specting their schools, and in social intercourse. 

Early next morning, a carriage and horses were ready 
to carry him on his way to overtake the boats; and his 
drive of seventeen miles was peculiarly pleasant. " The 
mild coolness of the air, the brilliancy of the sky, and the 
stillness of everything around invited to meditation. Few 
living objects were seen but some camels and cows accom- 
panied by their drivers. Daylight seemed to come very 
soon and break the delightful chain of reflections, in which 



J<i^i 



32 VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. 

I had been engaged. I reached Chunar a little after sun- 
rise, and found the boats all safely anchored there." 
^ ,. At last, on the fifth of April, just eight months from 

-^ ^ ' '' I the day of their leaving Boston, the missionaries came in 
sight of Allahabad, and of the British colors flying over its 
fort. Next morning they started early, but had not pro- 
ceeded far when they were met by Mr. Warren, who came 
down in a small boat to meet them. At the ghaut, or 
landing, Mr. Owen found his old friend and classmate, 
John E. Freeman, waiting to welcome him, and received a 
warm American grasp of the hand. Mr. Morrison had left 
Allahabad on the first of January, on his way to Saharun- 
pur, whence, after a short residence, he proceeded to Simla. 
"How pleasant it was to find an asylum from the heat 
and fatigue of these last three months, to get on American 
premises, and to meet with American faces. What a relief 
from the cramping, smothering, suffocating, scorching and 
baking, which we have been obliged to endure in the 
budgerow. I think my poor sinful heart does feel grateful 
for the goodness of my heavenly Father, in bringing me 
through this long journey in so much mercy and safety. 
Arrangements have been made for me to live with brother 
Freeman, and I am now sitting in the room that has been 
assigned to me. The doors are open, and I have a lovely 
prospect by moonlight up and down the river." 



ALLAHABAD. 33 



CHAPTER IV. 

ALLAHABAD. ITS RELIGIOUS CHARACTER. THE MISSION 

STATION. — PRELIMINARY WORK OF THE MISSIONARY. ' | 

The junction of the Ganges and the Jumna has from 
ancient times been regarded as one of the holiest places in 
India. Prayaga, a Hindu city of great extent and beauty, 
the capital of an independent kingdom, once stood on the 
peninsula between those two rivers. But time and neglect, 
and worse than all, the devastations of war, have left noth- 
ing of it but ruins. Upon a pail of its site, and over the 
remains of its structures of brick, arose a later city of 
mud, to which the Mohammedan emperor Akbar gave the 
name of Allahabad, the city of Grod. Under British rule, 
it is the capital of a district and province of the same 
name. It is fifty-three miles up the river from Benares, and 
five hundred and fifty directly from Calcutta, or by the Jnir<> 
river, eight hundred, situated in 25° 27' N. Lat., 81"^ 50' E. c^ ^ ^ 
Long., at the centre of the great plain of India. From the 
lower course of the Brahmaputra to the Indus, is about 
fifteen hundred miles ; and from the foothills of the Him- 
alaya to the high table land of Central India in one direc- 
tion and the sea in another, is a breadth of from three 
hundred to five hundred miles. On that vast plain, Allah- 
abad stands about six hundred and fifty miles from the 
eastern extremity, and about one hundred and seventy 
from the foot of the northward mountains. 

The district of Allahabad is very fertile, but not much 
more than one third of its area is under culture. Its 



34 ALLAHABAD. 

population in 1840, amounted to over seven hundred and 
seventy-four thousand, in thirty-nine thousand and eighty- 
three villages. Of that population six hundred and fifty- 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven were Hindus 
and one hundred and twenty-two thousand five hundred 
and twelve Mohammedans. • ' 

Of the city the population was sixty -five thousand and 
forty-six, divided between twenty one thousand and thirty- 
one Mohammedans and forty-four thousand and fifteen 
Hindus. 

An extensive and strong fortification stood on the 
tongue of land between the Granges and the Jumna, com- 
pletely commanding the navigation of both rivers. The 
city now contains a permanent judicial establishment, 
whence periodical circuits are made through the province. 

The ground on which the city stands is considered by 
the Brahmans one of the holiest places in India — the most 
holy of all river confluences. Multitudes of pilgrims an- 
nually visit it in the hope of earning merit thereby. As 
many as two hundred thousand have been known to arrive 
there, from religious motives, in one year; to bathe in the 
sacred waters at that sacred spot being recommended to 
them by their sacerdotal guides as of eminent religious 
merit. 

For all these reasons Allahabad was early in the 
history of Presbyterian missions in India, selected as one 
of the most important stations. The Rev. Mr. M'Ewen, 
who commenced there in 1836, was constrained by ill 
health to abandon it two years afterwards. But his place 
was immediately supplied by the Rev. James Wilson, sus- 
tained by the arrival of Mr. Morrison, within a few weeks, 
and next year, by Messrs. Freeman and Warren. At the 



ALLAHABAD. 35 

time of Mr. Owen's arrival, three missionary ministers 
were there, Mr. Morrison having been removed to another 
station. 

The methods by which they prosecuted their work 
were p reaching in their own chapel for native Christians, 
and in the bazars, and melas, which at stated seasons met 
by the river in their neighborhood, teaching the native 
children, and distribut ing book s and tracts, and by endeav- 
oring to live and keep everything about them in such a 
way as t o recommend t heir Grospel message. And at proper 
seasons in the year missionary tours w ere made with the 
purpose of preaching and distributing books, and convers- 
ing with the people in the adjoining country. 

Next morning Mr. Owen commenced his studies with 
the Moonshee, that is, his Hindustani teacher, whom he 
describes as a large black man dressed in white, with a 
white turban on his dead, and long black hair hanging 
over his shoulders. '* He took his seat by my side to hear 
me read, and to assist me in giving utterance to some of 
the roughest sounds ever heard from a human throat. 
With him I am to spend several hours each day, for a long 
time before I can do much good to the dying souls around 
me." When Mr. Owen showed him a copy of the Koran, 
which he had brought with him from Americ^a, as a 
Mohammedan, he was greatly pleased, and remarked that 
it was beautifully written, not conceiving that it had ever 
been desecrated by print. An arrangement was made be- 
tween them to read a portion in it daily. Mr. Owen had 
read the whole of it, with his American pronunciation, 
before leaving home. 

That evening the missionaries of the station held, to- 
gether with their newly arrived friends, a meeting for 



36 ALLAHABAD. 

prayer and thanksgiving to Grod for his care of the latter 
during their long and tedious journey. On the following 
Sabbath they joined the native Christians in celebrating 
the Lord's Supper. " Before the distribution of the bread 
and wine, Brother Wilson, who was preaching, turned and 
addressed a few words to us, who had recently escaped the 
perils of the deep, and of the long journey up the Ganges, 
reminding us of how fit an occasion it was for thanksgiv- 
ing, and renewed dedication of ourselves to the service of 
our Saviour, and what a privilege it was to unite with those 
dear people, who not long ago were degraded idolaters. 
I felt that it was indeed good to be here. Delightful the 
thought that however different Christians may be with 
regard to country, complexion or manners, we are all one 
in Christ. Could American Christians see what I saw to- 
day, how could any of them withhold their efforts for the 
conversion of the heathen. How delightful will it be to 
ineet in heaven souls brought there through our instru- 
mentality. This evening I preached in the English Pres- 
byterian church." 

Allahabad, being an important post of the East India 
Company's government, contained a considerable number 
of British residents. For their benefit there were English 
services on the Sabbath; and persons of Presbyterian 
persuasion worshipped with the American missionaries. 
Accordingly there was work to be done in the English 
language: and the missionary was not necessarily silent 
until he had learned Hindustani. 

He early became a useful member of the mission by 
teaching in the school a class of boys already acquainted 
with English. The morning with his Moonshee, the after- 
noon with his class, and assisting in the frequent religious 



ALLAHABAD. 37 

services in English belonging to the station and among the 
British residents, fully occupied his time. He also took 
such part as he could in occasional services among the 
Hindu people. 

But the ferv^or of the climate had also to be borne. It 
was the first of June, when Mr. Owen wrote as follows : 
"We have been scorching for two months, the ground is 
dry and baked hard, and scarcely a blade of grass is to be 
seen anywhere, the air is hot, and feels, every evening 
when we go out, as if the atmosphere had been burning 
all day, like an immense oven; and when morning's dawn 
comes, after the shades of a whole night have been resting 
upon the earth, scarcely any freshness seems to have been 
gained." 

"When I attempt to preach here, I scarcely feel like 
the same person I was in America. All of my vigor 
appears to be gone, and I can hardly make any exertion. 
One can have no idea of the weakening and prostrating 
tendency of this climate without experience." 

"July 14. This morning I had a call from a young 
Brahman, who seemed quite interested in the study of 
geography, and was desirous of seeing a map, and especially 
one of Hindustan. I gave him a tract in Hindi entitled 
•Nicodemus, or the Inquirer,' written by Mr. Wilson of this 
mission. I had seen him some weeks ago, and had given 
him a copy of the Psalms in Sanskrit, with which he, this 
morning, expressed himself very well pleased. I read to 
him the first few verses of G-enesis. He is acquainted with 
the Sanskrit language, and a great reader of Hindu books. 
I endeavored, with as much of the Hindustani language as 
I could command, to direct him to Jesus as the only 
Saviour." i 



38 ALLAHABAD. 

" July 20. This morning we found that the Jumna had 
risen several feet during the night, and was rolling past our 
house with great velocity. The air is now very damj), and 
the weather unhealthy. Much sickness prevails. Many 
of the natives are dying of cholera." 

" Sept. 2. An interesting young man from Cabul has 
recently come, and we have engaged him to remain with 
us. He is very desirous of learning the English language, 
which I am to teach him, while he teaches me Persian. 
He speaks the Persian as his mother tongue. I now spend 
three or four hours a day with him. His mind is in a 
very interesting state in regard to religion. He unliesita- 
tingly avows his disbelief in Mohammedanism, the religion 
in which he was trained, and declares his belief in Christ- 
ianity, and often takes occasion to speak his views and 
feelings." 

" Sept. 30. Last evening we met in the church, for the 
purpose of constituting the Presbytery of Allahabad. 
Brother Wilson being the oldest member of the mission, 
according to the direction of the General Assembly, 
preached the sermon from I Tim 4 : 14, and after the serv- 
ices constituted the Presbytery with prayer, and presided 
until a moderator was chosen." He was himself chosen 
moderator and Mr. Owen stated clerk. 

" Oct. 3. Sabbath. Administered the sacrament of the 
Lord's SupjDer this evening, and felt much assistance and 
freedom. Thanks to my Heavenly Father for His rich 
mercies. O may I ever maintain a close walk with Him, 
and live under the constant light of His countenance." 

" Oct. 12. Last evening we met with the chaplain and 
some of the pious civilians and their ladies, for prayer and 
conversation on missionary subjects. This is designed to 



ALLAHABAD. 39 

be a regular meeting, on the second Monday evening of 
every month. The chaplain is a very pious man, and dis- 
posed to be quite friendly with us. The civilians with 
whom me met are also our warm friends, and show us 
much kindness." 

" Oct. 15. The rains have long since ceased ; the ground 
has become dry ; the crops have nearly ripened, and the 
cold season is fast approaching. The poor natives are now 
very busy, day and night, in watching their grain, protect- 
ing it from the depredations of cattle and birds. Only 
gardens and spots of ground designed to be kept with 
special care, are enclosed. The enclosures consist generally 
of mud walls, sometimes of brick. As the grain is sown 
very thick, and grows very high, it is necessary that those 
watching it should have an elevated position, to enable 
them to survey it thoroughly in every direction. To effect 
this, a few poles are fixed in the ground, which are made 
to support a rudely constructed platform, on which they 
remain stationed, protected by a slight covering overhead 
from the sun by day, and the dampness by night, and 
making free use of their slings, or bows and arrows. When 
I ride out early in the morning, a hundred shrill voices 
may be heard driving away the immense flocks of parrots, 
which are exceedingly destructive to the grain. o^^ 

This is usually considered the most unhealthy Reason 
of the year. Fevers are very prevalent. I have had a 
slight attack, and have been feverish most of the time for 
two or three weeks. Life is awfully uncertain in this 
climate. Some have recently been very suddenly cut down. 
Peculiarly applicable here is the admonition, Be ye always 
ready." 

Soon after penning these words he was himself laid 



40 ALLAHABAD. 

upon a bed of sickness, to which he was confined several 
weeks. About the middle of November, and before he had 
entirely recovered, he set out with Mr. Wilson on a mis- 
sionary tour, through parts of the Doiib and Bundlecund 
districts. He returned to Allahabad soon after the begin- 
ning of January greatly improved in health, and equipped 
with valuable experience for another part of evangelical 
labor. 

From the Report of the Allahabad Mission made for 
the year closing Oct. 1, 1841, we learn of the work in 
which the missionaries were there engaged. Mr. Warren 
superintended the press, and conducted its complicated 
correspondence, while studying the native languages, 
preaching in Hindustani to a small congregation in a 
room of the printing office, and occasionally in English. 
Mr. Freeman managed the business of bookbinding, con- 
ducted the orphan school for boys, a Hindustani Bible 
class and Sunday school, with occasional preaching in 
English, study of the native languages, superintendency of 
buildings, &c. Mr. Wilson, at that time the best versed 
in the language, was employed in revising and translating 
portions of the Old Testament in Hindustani, correcting 
proofs for the press, preaching to the native church, preach- 
ing in the bazars, superintending bazar schools, and in 
occasional English preaching. Mr. Owen's time was given 
chiefly to dihgent study of the native languages, to teach- 
ing in the school, preaching in English, and going to the 
bazar with a native assistant. His knowledge of Hindi 
and Hindustani he was building up with great care upon 
a broad and deep foundation in the Sanskrit, Arabic and 
Persian : a knowledge which subsequently did him valuable 
service in argument with learned Brahmans and Moham- 
medans. 



ALLAHABAD. 41 

The missionaries conducted two English services every 
Sabbath, one in the morning and one in the evening, the 
former being generally attended thinly, and the latter 
very well, averaging about thirty persons. Monthly con- 
cert of prayer was regularly observed, conducted alternately 
by Mr. M'Intosh of the Baptist mission, and the Rev. J. 
Wilson. They had built a neat and commodious chapel 
on one side of the public square, in the centre of the native 
city, where Mr. Wilson attended and preached once a week 
and sometimes oftener, and there also Mr. M'Intosh and 
Mr. Owen with native assistants ministered each once a 
week. 

Besides their regular stated work, they all went out, as 
circumstances directed, to the landings on the river, and 
other places of concourse to converse with whomsoever they 
found accessible. 

Seven bazar schools were kept up ; two at the expense 
of the mission, in which the attendance had averaged, in 
the course of the year, twenty, in one, and twenty-five in 
the other. Two were supported by Mr. Montgomery, the 
English magistrate, averaging from sixteen to twenty. And 
three were supported by Mr. Eraser, an Enghsh resident, 
in which the average attendance was from twelve to six- 
teen. Mr. Eraser and some other friends of the mission 
had built a house for one of the schools, which served also 
the purpose of a chapel, in a small bazar. 

The children, while assembled in those schools, were 
chiefly engaged in reading the Gospels and tracts and other 
elementary books, which the missionaries had prepared. 
But as they were all taught by Hindus and Mussulmans, 
the teachers embraced every oportunity to substitute their 
own books, when thev could without detection. And the 



42 ALLAHABAD. 

parents would often take the children away as soon as they 
were able to earn a few jtice, hj any other means. Such 
schools had not met expectation of them, but were con- 
tinued in hope. Because it was found that children who 
attended did carry away with them, and circulate in their 
measure some acquaintance with Christianity, which tak- 
ing its part in leavening society might facilitate future 
labors. Latterly some of those children had begun to come 
with their teachers to the Hindustani worship on the Sab- 
bath. 

Also to two natives, Patras and Simeon, the missiona- 
ries express their obligations for valuable assistance. 

A plan was about the same time proposed for the 
erection of an English school, in which European science 
should be connected with religious instruction. The mis- 
sionaries express themselves as not very sanguine about its 
immediate success, yet with confidence in its ultimate 
benefits; and add, "The more we see of India, of the work 
to be done, and of the materials with which it has to be 
done, the more strongly are our hopes directed to good 
English schools — schools in which a thorough English 
education, along with a good education in the vernacular, 
will be given, as the nurseries in which the only native 
ministry that deserves the the name must be reared. It will 
be, at best, a dwarfish ministry — a mere secondary auxi- 
liary force that will, for many generations to come, be 
gathered from among those who have merely a native 
education, and a little Christian training." Mention is 
made of the great results of the plan adopted by the East 
India Company in educating young natives in thorough 
European military tactics, and the question suggested: 
May not "the same amount of wisdom and skill vigorously 



ALLAHABAD. 43 

employed in drilling the native agency, which is to labor 
in the moral renovation of India, in due time produce 
equal results ? " 

About the same time to which the above refers, that is 
the summer of 1841, the First Presbyterian Church of 
Albany, N. Y., procured and presented to the Board of 
Foreign Missions a philosophical apparatus for the High 
School at Allahabad. "" 

The young man from Afghanistan, mentioned by Mr. 
Owen, was Dost Mohammed, son of an Ameer in the 
service of a brother of the reigning King at Cabul, Shah 
Sujah. While studying English with Mr. Owen and 
teaching him Persian, he often turned the conversation to 
the subject of Christianity, and in a short time declared 
his purpose to embrace its faith. He wrote to his father 
to inform him of the change in his convictions. Several 
letters were exchanged between them in the course of 
which the father expressed his displeasure, and finally 
broke off the correspondence. The young man seemed 
to be greatly distressed, but adhered to his profession of 
faith, and entered into missionary work as an assistant. 
He would often go with Mr. Owen or Mr. Wilson to the 
bazar, and take up the argument with Mohammedans, 
apjx'aling to their own experience, and using his practical 
knowledge of their religion with great effect. 

From the mission press at Allahabad there had issued 
already upwards of 73,000 copies of various works, amount- 
ing to 3,346,880 pages. And the books of Oenesis, Exodus, 
Psalms, Proverbs, Matthew and John, in Hindustani, had 
been revised, and in part translated, and four original 
tracts, two in Hindustani and two in Hindi, had been 
prepared by Mr. Wilson. 



44 ALLAHABAD. 

In that year, which was the first in the history of the 
fully organized mission, the missionaries counted to Allah- 
abad were five married ministers with their wives, and the 
Rev. Joseph Owen. But one of the five, at the date of the 
report, was still on his way from America, and one, on 
account of feeble health had, from the month of January, 
been absent in the hill country, at Sabathu. 

At Lodiana, the original station, only three ministers 
and a printer, with their wives, and a native catechist, had 
done the work of the mission, one who was counted in the 
report had not then arrived. To Sabathu there belonged 
only one minister and his wife ; to Saharunpur, one mar- 
ried minister, and one teacher, with their wives, and one 
unmarried minister and one catechist. This station had 
its ecclesiastical connection with the Ref. Presbyterian 
church. 

In the Furruckabad mission, only Futtehgurh was yet 
occupied, and there four ministers with their wives were 
employed, together with one teacher, one native catechist, 
and one native assistant. 

The nature of the work done was, with exception of 
printing, the same at all the Stations, consisting of preach- 
ing at regular appointed places, conversation with the 
people, distributing books, teaching in the native and Eng- 
lish languages, reading of the Scriptures and worship with 
the pupils, who chose to attend, conducting boarding 
schools for orphans, translating the Scriptures and religious 
books and tracts, and in itinerating for preaching, conversa- 
tion and distributing books, generally over the country. 

Lodiana and Allahabad were the printing stations. At 
the former nearly 60,000 copies of books had been issued, 
making 2,240,000 pages, in the Hindustani and Punjabi 
languages. 



ALLAHABAD. 45 

All these stations excepting Saharunpur, were organized 
into one bodv as the Synod of Northern India, consisting 
of the three Presbyteries of Lodiana, Furruckabad and 
Allahabad. 

In March, 1842, Mr. and Mrs. Levi Janvier on their 
way from Calcutta to Allahabad, were met by Mr. Owen 
at Benares. They were accompanied by the Rev. J. E^y \a/a^.^ 

and his wife. For a time, four of the former members of 
the Philadelphian Society at Princeton were fellow-pres- 
byters of the Allahabad mission. Mr. Morrison mean- 
while was residing at Simla and pursuing work as his 
health would admit; and as Janvier's final destination was 
Lodiana, his residence at Allahabad was brief. 



46 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 



CHAPTER V. 

POPULATION, LANGUAGES AND RELIGIOUS CHANGES IN 

UPPER INDIA, AND THE RELATIONS OF THE 

PRESBYTERIAN MISSION THERETO. 

That part of the great valley of Upper India lying 
westward from Allahabad, which Manu calls the " Middle 
Land," is the purest settlement of the Aryan race east of 
the Punjab. It was there that the Brahmanical religion 
developed most consistently in all its rites, laws and caste 
distinctions. One of the best authorities on the subject 
asserts that it is the only province of India to the social 
condition of which the laws of Manu accurately apply. 
Elsewhere a large part of the population consists of non- 
Aryan aboriginal tribes, or is of mixed descent, and 
practices a great diversity of religious rites. Aryan purity 
of blood and Brahmanical sacerdotalism, with its peculiar 
system of religion, maintained their proudest integrity in 
the " Middle Land." Caste, which in some other quarters 
is the distinction between victor and vanquished, was there 
the fruit of a peaceful development of privilege among a 
homogeneous people, and an object of attachment to the 
lowest as to the highest. For to have place in even an 
humble caste was unspeakably better than to have no caste. 
And Hindu religion was so far superior to the miserable 
superstitions of the aboriginal tribes that it was also an 
honorable distinction. Allahabad also stands within the 
country where, in the sixth century B. C, Buddhism arose, 
and estabhshed its first dominion, and from which it was 
long subsequently expelled by reviving Brahmanism. 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OP UPPER INDIA. 47 

In the course of the twelfth century of the Christian 
era that Hindu integrity was invaded by the Moham- 
medans, who planting the seat of their rule in the Punjab, 
ultimately extended their authority over the whole land. 
The Hindus, though subdued to foreign allegiance, re- 
retained their religious and social practices, and the more 
tenaciously that those practices now became the badge of 
an endangered ethnic integrity. As their Brahmanical 
system had formerly been the color of their superiority to 
the aborigines whom they had subdued or expelled, so now 
it organized their resistance to a foreign faith, maintained 
their ethnic identity and secured for them a united, and 
thereby a respectable position amid the multitude of their 
invaders. The superiority of Mohammedanism, as a reli- 
gion, to Hinduism is obvious, and yet it never made much 
progress in converting the Hindu people. Of all the reli- 
gions of India that which grew up on the "Middle Land" 
has proved most tenacious of its hold upon the Hindu 
mind. Buddhism, in its early prime, contended success- 
fully with Brahmanism, but was ultimately overcome. The 
tide of Mohammedanism poured in, subdued the people, and 
possessed the land, but Brahmanism remained unshaken. 
The Polytheism of the conquered was still holding its place 
side by side with the Unitarianism of the conquerors, when 
the European merchants arrived. By them it was treated 
with a cautious, almost timid respect. And now, in the 
settlement of the American missions, Christianity has 
undertaken what Buddhism and Mohammedanism have 
successively failed in. It may fairly be considered an 
arduous undertaking. Divine grace is no doubt equal to 
the difficulty. But Divine grace did not overcome the 
polytheism of the Roman empire in less than three hun- 



48 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

dred years. And that polytheism was then a far less 
compacted system than Brahmanism was fifty years ago. 

Since the establishment of the British government in 
that country, the Mohammedan and Hindu populations 
live side by side in the enjoyment of equal religious free- 
dom ; the latter resting upon the basis of national preju- 
dice and affections, the former upon the pride of earlier 
lordship. 

The American Presbyterian missions are planted among 
Hindus of the purest Aryan descent, and on the head- 
quarters of the once powerful Mongul empire, and where 
Mohammedans still form a large part of the population. 
Consequently two languages were to be acquired, and two 
entirely different religions encountered by the missionaries ; 
Mohammedanism being the worship of one God, in one 
person, without any sensible form; and Hinduism the 
idolatry of legions of gods under various forms ; the wor- 
ship of the one being simple prayer and praise, that of the 
latter, ceremonial in the extreme. The two languages are 
the Hindi and the Urdu, or Hindustani. The former, a 
modem descendant of the Sanskrit which clings closely to 
its ancestor in the substance of its words, with character- 
istic changes in form, is the favorite literary language of the 
Hindus. Hindustani is spoken in addition to their local 
dialect by almost all natives in the northern and central 
provinces. It appears to have been formed out of the 
Braja Bhaka, a Sanskrit language spoken on the banks of 
the Jumna, and the Prakrit belonging to the extensive 
empire of which Kanouj was the capital, and after tha 
Mohammedan invasion, intermingled with elements of 
Arabic and Persian. By the invaders it was called Urdu- 
Zaban, the camp language, and cultivated to its greatest 



ETHNIC CHAEACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 49 

purity at the chief seats of Mohammedan power in Delhi 
and Agra; but also latterly at Lucknow. 

By the beginning of the second year of his residence in 
Allahabad, Mr. Owen had so far mastered this most com- 
monly spoken tongue as to use it with ease in conversation 
and preaching. Early in August, 1842, he was again 
prostrated by fever. When recovering, partly from desire 
to engage as soon as jDossible in such work as he Wcts al)le 
to do, and partly with a view to strengthen his health, he 
undertook, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Freeman, a mis- 
sionary tour in a boat up the Ganges. 

"At Karra, thirty-six miles from Allahabad in a direct 
line, but much more by the river, we had the boat drawn 
up into a little cove, and stopped for the night. While 
making this movement, we passed under a very high bank, 
a vast heap of i-uins, so cut away by the Ganges, that 
bricks and other remnants of ancient buildings were ex- 
posed to view, forty or fifty feet below the surface. Karra 
is but a heap of ruins as far as the eye can reach from this 
bank. When the great city, whose remains we see here, 
was flourishing, I do not know that anybody can tell. 
Certainly the date must extend back many centuries. 
A small town now stands in the midst of the desolation." 
As is the missionary practice, wherever the opportunity 
offered, he went into the bazar to preach. A large number 
were assembled, and aided by Simeon, a native assistant, 
he continued to proclaim to them the gospel, as long as 
his strength would allow. Next morning he rose early 
and walked into the great burying gi*ound, for which 
Karra is celebrated, '* It is truly an immense city of the 
dead. It appears to be about a mile wide, and from two 
to three miles long. Its whole appearance gives evidence 



50 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

that it is the work of an age long gone by. When the 
generations, whose dust hes here, were on the stage of Ufe, 
it is difficult to say. One thing is certain, that they were 
all Mohammedans. For the Hindus never bury their 
dead, while the Mohammedans do so always. The struc- 
ture of the tombs is also in Mohammedan style. The 
common grave is designated by an elevation of mason 
work, constructed of brick and mortar, either round or flat 
on the top. Where a family is interred, a i^latform of 
brick and mortar is placed over the whole ; and from this, 
tumuli are elevated for the individuals respectively whose 
remains lie beneath. The higher classes have buildings of 
di:fferent sizes, according to their wealth and rank, erected 
over them. Those over the nobles and princes are set up 
with great expense and splendor. Tombs of all these 
varieties are to be seen in this vast cemetery; but those of 
the rich as well as of the poor are crumbling to ruins. The 
piles are falling down, the bricks are scattered about, and 
many of the sepulchres have been almost undermined, and 
washed away by the floods formed during the rains. The 
whole is a dismal sight. Here was once a large, wealthy 
and splendid city ; but all that now remains of it is this 
scene of gloomy desolation. Probably very few, if any, 
of the names of those whose ashes lie here, are now 
known." 

As the missionaries were imable to proceed on their 
way, because of the strong opposing wind and rapid stream, 
Mr. Owen returned in the evening to preach in the bazar. 

"A man stood near, and attempted to interrupt me by 
asking questions. He evidently cared very little about 
what he said, his design being to defeat my purpose. But 
as some of the questions were important in themselves, and 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA, 51 

helped me to state some points, more explicitly than I 
otherwise might have done, I answered them in my dis- 
course to the people. Other questions, which were trivial, 
I did not notice. When I had done, some attempted to 
hoot at me, but others treated me with politeness, and fol- 
lowed me to the boat, for books. How much love, for- 
bearance and faith a missionary needs for his work." 

Of the willingness of the people to receive books he 
remarks that a principal motive is ''very likely curiosity, 
and that desire which is so prominent a feature of the 
Hindu character, to take eagerly anything of value which 
costs them nothing. But He, whose word is contained in 
these little volumes, is able to bless it abundantly to the 
destruction of Satan's Kingdom, and the building up of 
his own. May He in mercy do so, to the salvation of these 
precious souls, and the glory of his great name." 

On another occasion, when Mr. Owen was preaching in 
a village, a Brahman attempted to interrupt him by disputa- 
tion, and to confound him by repeating a string of words 
from the shasters, which Mr. Owen was confident he did not 
understand. "I told him that it was very unprofitable 
and foohsh to stand there reciting words, which neither 
he nor those around him knew the meaning of; and oj^en- 
ing the Grospel of John, at the third chaj^ter, said "Here is 
something from the true shasters, the Word of God which 
is designed for all, not for Brahmans only, and which all 
may understand.' As I read, I asked the people whether 
it was not plain and intelligible : and all assented that it 
was. I took occasion to remark how like the Pharisees of 
old the Brahmans are, and that these are as ignorant of 
the nature of the new birth as Nicodemus was. I read 
and explained as far as the 16th verse, and all listened very 



52 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

attentively. The Bralimau said not a word in rej^ly, and 
after I liad done walked quietly away." 

During the greater part of the month of September, 
Mr. Owen was laid up with fever and ague, contracted in 
ascending the river. In that condition he stopped at 
Oawn2)ore, where he found a kind host in the Rev. Mr. 
Perkins, a missionary of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Grospel in Foreign Parts, to whose medical skill he 
osved his recovery.^ 

On the twenty-fifth of Se23tember, a delightful Sabbath 
morning, he is again seated in his little room in the boat 
writing. "We are far away from any church, spending 
the Sabbath on the shore of the Granges, about thirty miles 
below Futtehgurh. The day without is beautiful, but a 
little too hot to be comfortable, even to us who are in the 
shade of the thatched roof of the boat. The sun is shin- 
ing brightly, the westerly wind is moving briskly, birds of 
great variety are singing, the country is covered with a 
rich deep verdure, the early crops are hastening to matur- 
ity, and all nature speaks the praises of a beneficent Grod. 
But, alas! 'man is vile.' The poor boatmen, who are with 
us, are in gross darkness, and all whom we meet, either on 
the river or on land, are in the same deplorable condition. 
They like very well, at least those in our employ, the bodily 
rest which the Sabbath affords them; and, I am thank- 
ful to say, are attentive to the instructions they receive 
from us." 

About the beginning of October, he arrived at Futteh- 
gurh, where he met with, and enjoyed the hospitality of 
friends, in whose company he had made the voyage to 
India. Mr. Rankin was his host, Mr. and Mrs. Janvier 
were there, Mr. Scott he had also known in America, and 



1) For. Miss. Chron., vol. XI. p. 240. 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 53 

the Other American members of that mission were Mr. and 
Mrs. H. R. Wilson. Among them he had a variety of 
occupations, but chiefly preaching in Urdu and Hindi ; in 
the former, to the Orphan schools, and others who com- 
posed the native congregation, and in the latter, to the in- 
habitants of a village not far distant. 

Mr. and Mrs. Janvier having been appointed to the 
station at Lodiana, he went with them on a preaching tour, 
as far as Delhi. The missionary method of travelling by 
land was primitive and independent, not of choice, but of 
necessity. All things they needed had to be carried with 
them. Travelling was safe only during the cool of the 
morning and evening. They had small tents to sleep in at 
night, and meanwhile they sent on their large tents ten or 
twelve miles forward, to be ready for their arrival before 
the heat of the day. 

"Oct. 16. Sabbath. A busy, pleasant day. Preached 
this morning in a village to some twenty people, most of 
whom gave good attention," "The word of God has ap- 
peared to me very precious in this desert. Though we are 
far away from the great congregations of God's people, we 
are not alone nor lonel^^ and are very far from being un- 
happy. We feel that it is good to be here, where we have 
opportunities of making known to the poor heathen that 
Gospel which we have found to be so precious." 

In the afternoon they assembled their, servants for 
divine service. " Soon after, a crowd from the village 
assembled around our tents, to whom we preached until 
we thought that prudence required us to stop. Not more 
than two or three attempted to disturb us by asking use- 
less questions. May the seed that we have sown to-day 
spring up and bear fruit to the giorv of God. 



54 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

Daily am I made to feel that the conversion of these 
heathen is to be accomplished not by might, nor by power, 
but by the Spirit of Jehovah. 

It is hard work to preach in the midst of a multitude 
whose thoughts and hearts seem to be intent on any other 
subject than on that which is nearest to the sj)eaker's 
heart." 

At the city of Aligurh, the missionary tents were 
pitched, on the 22nd of October, near the parade ground 
of the British military station. 

"We were delighted with the beauty of the place. The 
roads are in fine condition, made of Kankar, or a kind of 
limestone, perfectly level and hard. One in particular we 
admired, and thought it the most beautiful we had seen in 
India. It extends about two miles from the station, and 
is shaded on both sides with trees. The scenery around is 
very pleasant, and we judged, from all that we could ob- 
serve, that the place must be healthy. The city is large, 
the bazar very extensive, and filled with a busy throng. I 
wonder that no missionary has been stationed here. It 
appears to me highly desirable that our Board should send 
two missionaries here as soon as j)ossible." 

Next day they preached to a native audience of a dif- 
ferent character from what they had found in the villages. 

"The people are far more intelligent, and the Urdu 
language is here used. We felt the difference this morn- 
ing very sensibly." 

" Two missionaries well acquainted with the native 
dialect, would here find a large field for preaching, and 
might also have a school under their suj^erintendence. I am 
more and more impressed with the importance of making 
education a prominent branch of missionary labor. Not 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 55 

that I think education should be substituted for preaching; 
for this is the means of God's own appointment, by which 
He will save them that believe ; but education should be 
conducted with the special view of rendering preaching in 
this country more efficient, that is, of raising up a native 
ministry. We foreigners, from the nature of the case, can 
seldom, if ever, become able to speak the language like the 
natives ; and besides, if we could, enough preachers for the 
whole of India can never be supplied from America and 
Europe. The great body of preachers through whose more 
direct instrumentality this country will be converted, must 
be from among the natives themselves. They know their 
own languages better than we can ever learn them, are 
familiar with the character of their countrymen, know their 
modes of thought, and the style of address best adapted to 
gain their attention, and instruct and convince them, are 
acquainted with their customs, and can also endure this 
withering clim-ite better than we. While therefore we 
ought to endeavor, for the present, to preach and translate 
and write their languages as well as we can, and to be un- 
ceasing in these labors, we ought also to be unceasing in 
efforts to train up, as soon as possible, a learned and j^ious 
native ministry, who may translate the Word of Grod so as 
to be understood by all, and who may be able to address 
all the people, in the cities and villages, in the ways best 
adapted to enlighten and convince. If there were a dozen 
such men in a city like this, what wonders they might ac- 
complish through divine assistance. How happy will the 
day be when in all the villages through which we have 
recently been travelling, there shall be stationed village 
pastors." 

On leaving Dellii, Mr. Owen in company with Mr. Scott, 
spent Sabbath, the 6th of November, in a neighboring vil- 



56 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

lage, where they preached morning and evening. Proceed- 
ing thence upon their way, preaching in the towns and 
villages, and distributing books and tracts, they came on 
the fifth day afterwards to Muttra. There they stopped 
at the Bungalow of Mr. Ross, a jmtrol officer, who enter- 
tained them kindly. In his comj^any they visited Bindra- 
bau, about five miles from Muttra, on the Jumna, where 
the Hindus believe that Krishna became incarnate. Marks 
of a pair of feet were pointed out to them where the god 
alighted. 

"At one peculiarly sacred place, we stopped, expressing 
a desire to look into it. The men around said it could not 
be opened then, as the god was asleep. I asked them 
when he would awake. They replied, "At evening.'* 
And what will he do then ? Will he arise and walk 
out ? No. Does he never come out ? No. How do 
you know when he is awake ? We know. How do you 
know ? We have evidence. What evidence ? Your god 
always stays there, never stirs, never comes out. And how 
can you tell whether he is awake or asleep ? No definite 
answer was given ; and I then repeated Psalm 115: 4-8, 
and pointed to the true Grod whom we worship. After 
speaking of his perfections, I directed their attention to 
the true incarnation." " You say, that Krishna became 
incarnate here. Now let me tell you who did become in- 
carnate. The Son of the Great Grod became incarnate at 
a village to the westward called Bethlehem. And why did 
he become incarnate ? This question I answered. Bro. 
Scott then preached. After this we gave away a few 
books. But the people seemed to be mad on their idols. 
We distributed several books through the city, as we 
passed, and all seemed glad to receive them." 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 57 

" Nov. 12. Visited Muttra this morning, and spent 
several hours in taking a general survey of it. Its ghats 
and temj^les are numerous and costly. It is emphatically 
a city wholly given to idolatry. 

It was anciently a very wealthy city. Mahmood, the 
first great Mohammedan invader of India, entered it in 
the eleventh century and found its temples most splendid, 
filled with gigantic idols of pure gold, having eyes of 
rubies. In one was set a sapphire of extraordinary 
magnitude. Having reduced those rich objects to their 
constituent elements of gold and jewels, he loaded with 
them a long train of camels, and carried them to Grhizni." 
From Muttra the missionaries went to Agra, where they 
were entertained by the Rev. C. Gr. Ogauder, a G-erman ^ 
missionary in connection with the English Church Mission- 
ary Society. While at Agra, they visited the celebrated 
Taj, erected by Shah Jehan, in honor of his favorite wife. 

"As we came near the Taj, the first object to take our 
attention was the lofty gate-way. Around this are large 
Arabic inscriptions, formed by laying black stone into 
white marble. But we could not stop to look long at these. 
Our eyes had caught something beyond far more attractive. 
There was a lovely garden divided by a broad avenue, 
ornamented with courses of water and jets cV eau, and 
bordered by Cyj^ress trees, and at the end of which, op- 
posite to where we were, stood the exquisitely beautiful 
Taj. No description can adequately represent this most 
charming view. The brightest picture that the imagina- 
tion ever conceived of the abodes of fairies might seem to 
be here realized. The marble, of which the Taj is built, 
had very much the appearance of mother of pearl, at that 
distance. The octagonal body of the building itself, the 
dome, the minarets, and the carved net-work of the win- 



58 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

dows, all seemed to be of this material. It stands on a 
square, elevated ten or twelve feet above the level of the 
ground. The steps hy which this is ascended are con- 
cealed. The pavement is of white marble, and on each 
corner of the square stands a minaret of the same material. 

On aj^proaching the door of the Taj, a variety of Mo- 
saic work meets the eye, principally imitations of plants, 
and flowers, but rather stiff, and not so delicate and rich 
as that in Delhi. On entering, the eye is almost bewildered 
by a splendid display of the finest net work, carved from 
pure white marble, inclosing two sarcophagi. These, to- 
gether with the inclosure, are very richly ornamented with 
Mosaics. On one sarcophagus is the name of Shah Jehan, 
and on the other that of Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite 
Queen. She was also called Taj Bibi, i. e., Lady Taj. 
Directly beneath these, in a lower story, are two others ex- 
actly corresponding in appearance and finish, and under 
those is the place of sepulture. Over the room where we 
stood was the dome. 

From the platform of the Taj we looked off directly 
into the Jumna. The garden of many acr^s appeared from 
one of the minarets like a forest. We afterwards walked 
around it. It is by far the most beautiful of the many 
beautiful gardens I have seen in India. 

From this we went to the fort, which also stands on the 
Jumna. It is built of red granite. Within this the great 
Akbar once held his' court. It is now almost entirely 
deserted ; but time and changes of governments seem to 
have had little effect upon its solid walls. The ground 
entrance remains as it was, being a succession of inclined 
planes, so constructed, the stones with which they are 
paved being cut into grooves, that horses, and even car- 
riages may pass up and down. The marble palace is 



ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 59 

pleasantly situated on the banks of the Jumna. Although 
it is rich and splendid, it draws little admiration from one 
who has just seen the Taj. Still it is in a high degree in- 
teresting on account of the recollections attached to it, 
having been the residence of some of the most celebrated 
conquerors of the east." "Here was the court of Akbar, 
the greatest of the Mongol emperors, indeed one of the 
greatest of eastern kings. But silence reigns throughout 
those apartments now. The glory and power, once so far 
famed, have long since come to an end." 

" We visited the Government College, in which English, 
Arabic and Persian are taught; the vernacular also, but 
no religion, except the Hindu and Mohammedan." 

" Nov. 15. Visited Secundra to-day. Here is Akbar's 
tomb, a great curiosity, but difficult to describe. It stands 
in a large garden, larger than the one in which is the Taj, 
but not so beautiful. The gateway was once large and 
elegant, but is now going to ruins." 

" We breakfasted with Mr. Hoerle, one of Mr. Offan- 
der's associates. He lives in the entrance to a tomb of one 
of Akbar's queens. The girls' school is in the mausoleum 
itself. The boys' school is in the mausoleum of another 
of his queens, who is supposed to have been a Christian, a 
Portuguese, as there is no inscription in the usual Moham- 
medan style on the sarcophagus. Probably it was through 
her influence that the Jesuit missionaries were called to 
Akbar's court, and kept there so long. These schools, 
under Mr. Hoerle' s care, are quite interesting. In the 
boys' school are 161, and in the girls' 116. They earn a 
large amount towards their support by various kinds of 
manual labor." 

" Near Mr. Offander's are some curious stones which 
have recently been excavated. From these it appears that, 



60 ETHNIC CHARACTER OF UPPER INDIA. 

about two hundred years ago, there was in A^ra a colony 
of Englishmen and Dutchmen, of whom we have no histor- 
ical account. The «tones are in the Mohammedan style, 
and of a cheap order. One of the inscriptions is this, 
'Here lies the body of John Drake Haine, Anno Domini 
1637. E. R. fecit. A. Domini 1647.' Of the rest, some in 
English, and some in Dutch, the earliest date was 1627, 
and the latest, 1679." 

On their return journey the missionary party preached 
in many large villages, in some of them several times, and 
in general the people listened attentively. At Kanouj 
they sjDent four days. Much interest was awakened by 
their appearance. People came in great numbers around 
their tents daily, and instruction was given by one or other 
of them almost constantly. 

One day they took a few hours to survey the ruins of 
the old city. In days of Buddhist superiority, Kanouj was 
a great Buddhist city. In the decline of that religion, it 
passed over to the rival faith and became the centre of 
* Orthodox Brahmanism, and supplied Brahmanical teachers 
to Bengal, whose descendants are still known as Kulin 
Brahmans.'^ Mahmoudof Grhizni carried from it spoils of 
immense value. The fort was about two miles long, but 
is now a heap of brick and earth. We saw only a small 
piece of the ancient wall remaining. Everything of ancient 
Hindu structure seems to have been brought entirely to 
ruin, and almost to non-existence. One or two ancient 
temples are in part remaining, having been changed by the 
Mohammedans into mas j ids. 

In January, 1843, Mr. Owen was again in Allahabad, 
engaged in the ordinary duties of the station. 



1) Wheeler, Hist, of India. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 61 



CHAPTER VI. 



IDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN, 



It is a gigantic system of si^iritual bondage under 
which the Hindu people are enslaved. And in the heart 
of it reigns the belief in cruel and vindictive gods, who 
have to be propitiated by continual service, whereby every 
individual is dependent on the priesthood who alone can 
satisfy them. The doctrine of salvation offered freely to 
faith by the sovereign love of God is diametrically opposed 
to all their habits of thinking, and all that teaching which 
from infancy has grown into the texture of their minds. 
Although they may understand the words in which it is 
presented, yet the meanings they receive are necessarily 
not the christian but the heathen, those associated with all 
their own previous use of the words. Their whole power 
of thinking is so abused, perverted and preoccupied that 
they cannot understand aright the terms in which the 
gospel is offered. 

There is needed a Christian education for them which 
shall substitute Christian ideas for heathen, and accom- 
pany and follow up the proclamation of the Grospel with 
exposition and application of all its details, and that not 
once in a village, but persistently, until the language itself 
becomes imbued with a Christian meaning. Grovernment 
schools existed only at far distant points, and reached com- 
paratively few. For the most part, the Christian teacher 
had to begin with his pupils at the beginning. In some 
respects he was at a disadvantage as compared with the 



62 EDUCATION OP THE HEATHEN. 

govemmeDt schools. At the latter, good attainments were 
conspicuous, and put their possessor directly in the way of 
promotion to office. Missionary schools held out no such 
inducements, and did not profess to be neutral on the sub- 
ject of religion. And yet, because good attainments made 
at the mission schools, although not so directly under the 
eye. of government, were accepted as preparation for office, 
some parents were, for the sake of that advantage, willing 
to risk the danger from the side of religion. * 

Another class for whom instruction had to be provided, 
consisted of destitute children and orphans collected by 
Christian charity. 

Such was a part of the work which the Presbyterian 
missionaries in Northern India felt to be incumbent upon 
them from the first. Schools for children were commenced 
at all their stations ; and some of them had begun to think 
of raising up a native ministry. Into this work of educa- 
tion, Mr. Owen entered with all his heart. 

The schools were of different kinds. First, those taught 
in the bazars, open to all who chose to attend, and occupied 
chiefly in teaching to read the vernacular tongue ; secondly, 
free schools on the mission premises, and thirdly, orphan 
schools for both boys and girls. In these latter, more ex- 
tended instruction was attempted, including all the or- 
dinary elementary departments, in Hindustani, Hindi, and 
English. By way of preparing for a higher and a clerical 
course of study, a High School was instituted at Lodiana, 
and put, for a time, in charge of Mr. Porter, and after- 
wards, in 1842, of Mr. Janvier.^ The mission at Allahabad, 
in like manner, "having had in contemplation, for a length 
of time, to establish a High School, in which a more ex- 



1) For. Miss. Chron. XII. 105. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 63 

tended course of study might be imparted to the orj^han 
boys under its care, and in which Biblical instruction 
should hold the most prominent place, resolved to open 
the school on the first of January, 1843, in the house 
used as a mission chapel ; but in consequence of the mela 
boing held at that time, it did not go into operation until 
the beginning of February. 

Notices were circulated through the city inviting the 
natives to send their children to this school, where they 
would be instructed in the native laaguages, and also re- 
ceive an English education free of expense. Mr. Owen 
was appointed to superintend the native department, and 
assist in the English, when needed, and Mr. Wray to 
superintend the English. Two assistants were also em- 
ployed. 

Its schools soon became an interesting feature of the 
Mission, divided into the lour separate departments of the 
boys' bazar schools, the girls' bazar schools, the orphan 
girls' school, and the Mission High School. From the 
reported list of studies pursued in the last named, it 
appears that the chief view was had to preparation of those 
who might be otherwise qualified for the njinistry of the 
Gospel among their countrymen. 

"April 26, 1843. Smdh is now an integral part of 
British territory. A great battle was fought by the Brit- 
ish army, under command of Sir Charles Napier, against 
the Belouchees on the 17th of February, and a decisive 
victory gainel, and another on the 24th of March, within 
six miles of Hyderabad. The result will probably be the 
opening of the Indus, and the introduction of civilization 
and Christianity into Sindh." 

A college had bee'^ established at Allahabad and for 
some years supported by the British East India Grovern- 



64 EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 

ment, for the education of native youth in the English 
language, and learning. On the first of October, 1846, that 
institution was transferred to the care and control of the 
American missionaries, with the use of the building, furni- 
ture and as much of the library as they might require.^ 

As the Bible and the Christian religion had been hith- 
erto excluded from the course of studies, it became a point 
of much solicitude with the missionaries and their friends 
what course would be taken by the students on finding 
that the college was now to be conducted on Christian 
principles. On the first day after the change, a discussion 
took place concerning Christianity, and the members of the 
first class, and some of the second withdrew. The rest con- 
tinued in attendance, and new names were soon added. 
The Bible and Christian books were introduced, as they 
U- had been in the High School ; heathen holidays were dis- 

^ coimtenanced, and a radical change accomplished in the 

religious character of the institution. In merging itself 
into the College, the School communicated its own religi- 
ous character. The new institution, as the Mission Col- 
lege, was put under charge of Mr. Owen, with Mr. Wray, 
and to some extent others as assistants.^ 

At Furruckabad a similar transfer was made with a 
valuable library of 700 volumes. In 1847 the number of 
children and youth under instruction of the three Pres- 
byterian Missions in Northern India amounted to about 
one thousand.^ 

Mr. Owen, in a report* of the progress of the College 
at Allahabad for its first six months, after mentioning how 
great was the opposition in the city against it, under its 

1) For. Miss. Chron. XV. 3-25. 3) Ibid. XV. 195. 

2) F. M. Chron. XV. 7i'. 4) Ibid, -257. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 65 

new management, and that he and his colleagues had to 
proceed with caution and yet with decision, goes on to say 
that their firm resolve was that it should be a Christian 
institution, "that the Bible must be taught, and liberty 
given us to explain its doctrines, otherwise we would have 
nothing to do with it. Some good friends advised us to 
bring it in the first day. But we thought it our duty to 
adapt our proceedings to the peculiar circumstances. Here 
was a seminary in which opposition to the Bible had long 
been virtually fostered. Our position was far more dif- 
ficult than if the pupils had been brought to us rude from 
the city. Had the Bible been brought at once and placed 
in their hands, the whole number would probably have 
left. Yet the Bible was introduced the very first day, 
and though not read by the city lads, it was heard. Our 
orphan boys went on reading the Scriptures as usual while 
the others sat and listened. In a few days, however, the 
Bible was given to a class of city lads to read, at their own 
request. They had requested to read Milton's Paradise 
Lost, and after reading it a few days, discovered that they 
could not understand it properly without the Bible, and 
asked me to read it with them." It was gradually intro- 
duced into the other classes, as they were willing to 
receive it. 

On the 10th of December, after the college had been 
two months in connection with the mission, a public 
examination was had, in presence of several visitors, 
ladies and gentlemen, who expressed themselves "dehghted 
to hear all the classes reading the Bible, except the young- 
est, who were not yet able to read it with advantage." 

About a hundred youth were present at the examina- 
tion, although they had opened with only fifty. 



IS^J 



6,6 % EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. , 

" While the mela lasted we continued our regular recita- 
tions daily, without any regard to the festival, though fre- 
quently besieged by the students with requests for holi- 
day. We would have been glad to be at the mela for 
preaching, more than we were, but as the object of all our 
labors is to break up the mela and every other idolatrous 
thing, we thought it would be best promoted by remaining 
at our proper post."i 

On the first festival after the transfer of the college 
none of the scholars attended. "When the next came, for 
they are constantly coming, the government gave about 
one-third of the year to them, two or three were present. 
On the arrival of the next, the same arguments were urged, 
for the holy day." The calm reply was, " We are Christ- 
ians, we do not compel you to observe our sacred days, 
why should you wish to compel us to observe yours ? We 
allow you to follow your consciences, you should allow us 
to follow ours. We think you are wrong in observing 
these days, we advise you to attend to your studies, still 
we lay no compulsion on you." G-entle firmness, with care 
to make knowledge entertaining to them, struggled through 
the difiiculty. With similar caution and respectful kind- 
ness the objections to reading the Bible in College were 
overcome. 

At the end of a few months Mr. Owen could say, " I 
spend an hour daily with all in the College department, 
eight Sophomores and fourteen Freshmen, in the reading 
and exposition of the oracles of G-od, and I have not a 
more delightful hour in the whole twenty-four. We pro- 
ceed thus : I call upon some one to repeat what he can 
remember of the preceding day's lesson from the Old 

1) F. M, Chron. XV. 320. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. &*? 

Testament, (at present Genesis,) with the exj^lanation 
given; then we proceed to a new chapter, which they read, 
two verses in turn, after which we go over it carefully, 
calling attention to the most important parts, showing 
the connection between the different parts of the historv, 
keeping prominently in view the great fact that this is the 
inspired history of Grod's church, and in connection with 
this, explaining the nature of the church, pointing out the 
doctrines, the types of the Messiah, and prophecies respect- 
ing him, and making such practical remarks as the portion 
read may suggest. After this is done we turn to the New 
Testament, and after some one has given an account of the 
preceding day's lesson from it, we proceed with a small 
portion on a plan similar to the one used with the Old 
Testament, varying the instruction as the subject may 
require. We are at present reading the gospels in har- 
mony. On Saturdays, instead of reading the Scriptures 
they spend an hour or more in reciting two or three answers 
from the Westminster Shorter Catechism, with proofs. In 
this way I hope precious seed is finding soil where it shall 
yet germinate and yield an increase to the glory of Grod's 
grace. 

The truth has already begun to work. Sometimes we 
have most interesting conversations on some of the doc- 
trines brought into view by the Scripture read, of which I 
could not repeat to you the tenth part. Exclamations like 
the following have been made, with all appearance of sin- 
cerity, and with marked feeling : ' Oh, is this book indeed 
true ! Is the soul really to live forever, and is its condi- 
tion to be fixed, without any possibility of change, after 
leaving this world ? Then I am in great fear ; my shasters 
never told me any such thing. Is the soul hereafter to 



68 EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 

have no transmigration, 7nust it be unchangeably fixed 
either in heaven or in hell ? I am not fit to go to heaven ; 
if I should die now, I must go to hell ; I am in great fear. 
Oh, must the punishment of hell be forever ? That is 
awful. What shall I do to be saved ? ' This last was 
said to me one day by a young Brahman, with tears in his 
eyes, after we had been reading the Bible. He came home 
with me, I conversed and prayed with him ; he has fre- 
quently been to me for private conversation and prayer 
since that time, attends church regularly, attends also, I 
hope, to secret prayer, reads the Scriptures with attention, 
has read Baxter's Call, is now reading Doddridge's Rise and 
Progress, and will, I trust, in Grod's own good time be led 
to make a public profession of attachment to the Savior." 
After prayer had also been introduced with the consent 
of the students, " some who had attended church and heard 
sinewing, wished that we might have singing also. So I 
promised them that they should have it the next morning. 
I got several copies of the G-eneral Assembly's former col- 
lection of hymns, now lying out of use, since the introduc- 
tion of the last collection, distributed them, and requested 
that all would try to sing, as that was the only way of 
learning. They all seemed greatly pleased. All, except a 
strict Mohammedan, joined in trying, and as I am not 
much of a singer, the strange variety of noises sometimes 
almost puts me out. But they do it all with great respect 
and sobriety, and some express a desire to learn the art of 
singing well. The Hindus generally are such bad musi- 
cians, so monotonous and without taste in all their per- 
formances, whether instrumental or vocal, that the desire 
expressed by these youth to learn the science of music is 
rather remarkable." 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 69 

Toward the end of the first year Mr. Owen wrote to the 
Lieutenant-GToveruor, giving him an account of what had 
been done, and asking him to become patron of the college. 
" He replied very kindly, and freely gave his consent." 
Several English residents became trustees. " Of course 
they will not interfere with our regulations, but will visit 
the institution from time to time, attend the examinations, 
award prizes, give us their counsel, and in various ways 
show themselves interested in its prosperity." 

On the same occasion he also proposed a system of 
scholarships, remarking that "It is very desirable to hold 
out some inducement to our best scholars to remain in con- 
nection with the institution, pursuing their studies a year 
or two after j^assing through the regular course, and we 
hope to have theological classes that will need assistance 
from these scholarships. The course of study, as at present 
marked out, is eight years, four for the school and four for 
the college." 

Appended to the Catalogue and Regulations of the 
Allahabad Mission College for the year 1847, was a list of 
contributions to its support subscribed by English gentle- 
men of the East India Company's service, of from ten to 
two hundred rupees annually. At the head of that list 
stands the name of Arthur Lang, magistrate of the district 
of Allahabad in the East India Company's service. 

Next year, 1848, in the month of March, the mission 
was strengthened by the arrival of the Eev. A. A. Hodge 
and his wife. The Rev. ^Merrit Owen, who was to have 
accompanied them, to join his brother, was detained 
by sickness, and died while they were on the way. Mr. 
Hodge was assigned to a place in the mission college ; but 
his residence in India was brief. The declining health of 



70 EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 

Mrs. Hoclge rendered it necessary to return to America 
before the end of two years. ^ His place was subsequently 
filled by Mr. Munnis, transferred from the Furrukabad 
mission. From the beginning the method was adopted of 
appointing native monitors, and of employing them, accord- 
ing to their capacity, in teaching. 

In 1 849, three of the bazar schools were connected with 
the college, as a vernacular department, making the whole 
number of scholars about three hundred. 

In August 1850, reinforcements left America for all the 
North India Missions; Mr. and Mrs. L. G. Hay, and Mr. 
and Mrs. H. W. Shaw to join that of Allahabad, Mr. and 
Mrs. Campbell, and Mr. Fullerton, to Furrukabad, and 
Mr. Orbison, to Lodiana. They reached Calcutta Dec. 30, 
1860.'^ 

On the 6th of Feb., 1850, Mr. Owen made the following 
statements respecting the progress of the college. " At the 
examination, on the 6th of December, we had present 153 
in the English dej^artment, and 145 in the vernacular, in 
all 298. Of course, our Assembly Hall was nearly full. 
We opened again, on the 4th of January, and though the 
Mela, and immediately after that the Holi, have been in 
progress, we have yet nearly the same number in attend- 
ance." 

"Day before yesterday (Feb. 4,) was observed by several 
Christians in different parts of India, as a day of fasting and 
prayer," for the blessing of God upon missionary labors in 
this country. I had forgotten previously to announce the 
subject to our puj^ils. They assembled, as usual, at 10 
A. M. for prayers, in the Assembly Hall, when I had 



1) F. Miss. Chron. XV. 272. F. Miss. July, 1850, p. 41. 

2) F. M. Chron. 18.50, p. 74. F. M. Chron. 1851, p. 188. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 71 

worship with them, and explained why the day was thus 
observed, and invited them to go over with me to the 
church at 11 o'clock. Accordingly they all formed in pro- 
cession at 11, to the number of 237, and marched with me 
to church, where I preached to them in Hindustani, from 
Psalm H. 10. 

Mr. Thomason, our excellent Lieutenant Governor, 
visited us about the middle of January, and expressed 
himself much pleased with our arrangements. Seeing them 
all assembled in the Hall, he inquired whether they could 
sing hymns. I had made no special preparation of this 
kind, but mentioned the hymn that first occurred to me, 

" Salvation, O tlie joyful sound," &;c., 
which they sang greatly to his delight. He kincQy sent the 
Institution a donation of two hundred rupees, a day or 
two afterward. 

Since we have got the large room, we have prayers 
twice daily, at the commencement and at the close of our 
daily duties. At each time, I read a portion of Scripture, 
and pray in Hindustani, so that all may understand, and 
at the morning service we always sing. Sometimes I ex- 
hibit pictures, illustrative of Scripture scenes, or incidents, 
accompanied, of course, with explanations, and remarks in 
Urdu." 

At that date, the number of children and youth under 
instruction of the Allahabad Missionaries amounted to 399. 

While laboring thus to create a centre of Christian 
education, and to raise up a class of men to take the place 
of Christian ministers for their native land, Mr. Owen con- 
ceived also the plan of having a system of branch schools, 
connected with preaching stations, within the district of 
Allahabad, to be conducted by some of the best prepared 



72 EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 

graduates of the Mission College. An English gentleman 
having generously offered to assist in " some private ben- 
evolent scheme," Mr. Owen stated to him his views on this 
subject. A branch school was forthwith commenced at 
Phulpur, a town some 18 or 20 miles from Allahabad, 
under instruction of two native teachers. Mr. Owen him- 
self spent four days there making arrangements. "If this 
experiment succeeds, I have another place in view, and we 
have two young men qualified to occupy it. Indeed, I have 
half a dozen places in view, and shall not feel satisfied till 
the whole district of Allahabad is dotted over with Chris- 
tian schools and stations." 

A similar branch school was soon after (Nov., 1853)^ 
commenced at Banda. At the end of the first year, it 
numbered 154 scholars. In April, 1854, we find Mr. Owen 
on a visit to that place,^ for the purpose of securmg greater 
conveniences of accommodation, in suitable dwellings, and 
a school-house for the branch mission there. "Am thank- 
ful," he writes, "to record that we have now 1137 Rupees 
in the school treasury, with which to commence buying 
and building, if we are all spared till after the rains." At 
the examination in Oct., 1854, Mr. Owen was present, to- 
gether with an English gentleman, who published a com- 
mendatory account of it.^ 

At the end of that year the principal school at Alla- 
habad closed its session with five hundred and fifty scholars. 
It was subsequently assigned to other superintendency. 
And at the end of three years, a great calamity befell the 
country, putting that and all other missionary work to a 
stop. 



1) F. M. 1855, p. 255. 

2) Ibid, 1854, p. 224. 3) F. M. for Nov., 1854. Nov., 1855, p. 170. May, 1856. 



EDUCATION OF THE HEATHEN. 



73 



In 1854 the G-overnmeDt of India provided for extend- 
ing their system of education, in the creating of univers- 
ities and common schools, which were to be open to all 
ranks and colors, and teachers were to be allowed to give 
Bible instruction to any of their scholars who might wish 
it, out of school hours. But such instruction was not to 
be subject of examination by the visitors appointed under 
government.^ 

A larger portion of Mr. Owen's time was now given to 
translation, revision of translation, and exposition of 
Scripture. 



1) F. M. Jan., 1855, p. 254. 



74 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL PROGRESS, AND EVENTS OF MISSIONARY WORK. 

Although true religion has no such peculiar adapta- 
bility to one branch of mankind as to unfit it for another, 
yet Jihere are certain ethnic natures of a more religious 
disposition than others. The Chinese, when they rise 
above superstition, are merely moral or formal, and the 
Turks when not fatalists, lean to rationalism; but there 
are two oriental races which, from the earliest dawn of 
their history, have been distinguished by the devotional 
element of character. These two are the Hebrew and the 
Hindu. Equally prone in their devotionalism to worship 
anything that can be conceived of as representative of 
God, the former have through all their history been 
guarded against the errors of that tendency, the latter 
abandoned to it without restraint; the former has been 
made the means of maintaining the present monotheism; 
the latter has developed the most complex and artificial 
system of polytheism. The monotheistic faith of the 
Hebrews is devotional, contemplates a personal God, and 
abhors the generalization of the rationalist ; so the poly- 
theism of the Hindu, though comprehended in the theory 
of a pantheistic philosophy, is practically devotional and 
rests on manifold objects of idolatry. Similarly endowed 
natures have, under different styles of treatment, been 
brought to religious positions diametrically opposite; one 
to the highest, and the other to the lowest occupied by 
civilized man. Among the religions of the far east the 



GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 75 

Hindu stands, as the Hebrew among those of the west. 
His is the oldest religion of the ruling race, to the east of 
Assyria and short of China. From it has set off the gi'eat- 
est and most pervasive reforms of all the further east, 
Avestanism and Buddhism; and its productivity in sects 
continues to this hour. To such a degree have spiritual 
and eternal things always occupied the mind of the Hindu, 
that those of the present life have been overlooked and 
undervalued. The spiritual has been regarded as the only 
reality and material things but seeming — mere illusion, the 
Maya of their mythology. Hebrews M'ere abundantly 
realistic, and from their ancient Scriptures it appears as 
prone to idolatry as the Hindoos. That they did not reach 
the same depth was due to the interposition of a better 
instruction. May we not hope that the same instruction 
impressed uj^on the Hindus may work a similar effect 
upon them, and through them upon the world of which 
they form so large a part. The race which has given the 
self-sacrificing devotees of Brahmanism, and the propa- 
gandists of Buddhism, if converted to a purer faith, one 
more satisfactory to both the heart and understanding, 
may be expected, when imbued by the lessons of the Gosj^el, 
to furnish the most devoted of its ministers. In this light, 
an interesting fact of the American missions in Northern 
India is that they are planted among a Hindu people. 

The Mohammedans of that country are descended of 
the foreign conquerors who ruled it, before the arrival of 
the British. From Oude westward to the Indus was the 
scene of their principal residence. And their authority, 
planted at Delhi or Agra, made Allahabad one of its strong 
places. Not Arabs, but Persians and Afghans were those 
invaders. And although the Arabic language was intro- 



76 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

duced by them in worship and the observances of religion, 
Persian was their language of business and of state. Their 
religion presented itself to the Hindu as utterly foreign. 
The strong jDoint of Mohammedanism, the certain truth 
of the oneness of God, answers the purpose of making its 
believers boldly confident in the whole of their creed, 
haughty, overbearing and intolerant. In discussion with 
them, Mr. Owen found his famiHar knowledge of the 
Hebrew Scriptures and of the Koran in Arabic of great 
advantage. Copies of both he carried with him on his 
missionary tours, always ready to verify or refute an 
alleged quotation. If his acquaintance with Sanskrit was 
not equally extensive, it was enough to furnish the means 
of encountering the common Brahmanical opposition from 
that quarter, as well as a help in the work of translation 
into Hindi, which soon fell to his lot. In accordance with 
a resolution of the G-eneral Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States, adopted in 1841, the missions 
of Lodiana, Allahabad, and Furrukabad were constituted 
Presbyteries, and organized into a Synod, to be called the 
Synod of Northern India. Intervening changes, and the 
distances and expense of travelling occasioned much delay 
in carrying that act of Assembly into effect. The first 
meeting of the Synod was to have been at Futtehgurh, on 
the 7th of December, 1844, and Messrs. Owen and Warren 
were requested, by the missionaries at Allahabad, to rep- 
resent their station. 

On the 7th of November preceding, Mr. Owen was 
married to Augusta Margaret, daughter of Major G-eneral 
Proctor of the British army. Upon the death of her father, 
Miss Proctor had accej^ted the invitation of her cousin, 
Mrs. Lang, wife of Arthur Lang, magistrate of the district 



GENERAL PROGRESS OV THE MISSION. 77 

of Allahabad, and removed thither in 1842. His union 
with that amiable and accompHshed Christian lady,l)rought 
Mr. Owen into more intimate social relations with the 
British residents, both civil and military, greatly extend- 
ing the sphere of his influence. 

On the day of their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Owen set 
out on a missionary tour, which was to terminate in the 
meeting of synod at Futtehgurh. They travelled by 
budgerow, on the Granges ; and at all stopping places, Mr. 
Owen availed himself, as usual, of opportunities to preach 
the Gospel by oral instruction and distribution of books. 

They reached Futtehgurh on the 2d of December, and 
on the 7th, the day appointed for the meeting of synod, 
the members present assembled in the orj)han school 
chapel; but in consequence of the absence of representa- 
tion from Lodiana, were unable to organize the synod. 
They however met in convention, and transacted some 
business, the most important of which were two resolu- 
tions in regard to translation. First, "That a revision of 
the Hindi and Urdu versions of the Scriptures now in use 
is desirable so soon as the work can be done." And 
second, " That in order to expedite the translation of the 
standards of the church, the three Presbyteries constitut- 
ing the Synod be requested to divide the work among them- 
selves, as follows, Allahabad to translate the Larger and 
Shorter Catechisms; Furrukabad, the Form of Grovern- 
ment and Directory, and Lodiana, the Confession of Faith. 
These are to be prepared both in Urdu and Hindi, and 
ready to be presented to Synod for its approval whenever 
that body may meet." 

It had also been thought advisable by the mission to 
print for circulation among the native population a volume 



78 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

of sermons in the Urdu lan^ua^e. The text undertaken 
by Mr. Owen was the first Psalm. His work upon it 
proved, in course of time, to be the beginning of a transla- 
tion and exposition of the whole book of Psalms in Urdu. 

The events of the Sikh war disturbed only the mission 
at Lodiana, but the interests concerned belonged equally 
to all the stations. The missionaries felt that the cause of 
the British government in that conflict was the cause of 
Christianity in India. On their part, the authorities did 
everything in their power, to protect the missionaries of 
Lodiana, who were inclosed within the military move- 
ments. 

"Jan. 6th, 1846. The close of the year was marked by 
important events in the Northwest — occurrences that will 
no doubt make a prominent figure in Indian history. The 
British army encountered a large army of the Sikhs, who 
had made aggression on this side of the Sutlej, on the 
18th, 21st, and 22d of December, and, though with great 
loss, drove them from the field. The first battle was at 
Moodkee, twenty-two miles from Firozpur, the engage- 
ments on the 21st and 22d at Firozshahr near Firozpur. 
The loss on both sides has been sad, though all particulars 
are not yet known." 

" Feb. 18. If it had not been the Lord that was on 
our side, when men rose iip against us, surely we had been 
destroyed, or driven from India. Why was not our army 
vanquished at Firozshahr, when weakened by hunger and 
fatigue they were led against a well disciplined and num- 
erous foe thirsting for our blood, and whose artillery did 
such awful execution ? The hand of Ood was there. Why 
have not the natives in every direction around us created 
revolt, and why was a conspiracy at Patna detected and 



GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 79 

suppressed ? God has been for us. Every observer of 
Providence must perceive that the Great Ruler has the 
direction of all the occurrences that have been taking place, 
and are still going on. On the 28th of January a division 
of the army, under command of Sir Harry Smith, attacked 
the Sikhs in their entrenchments, and drove them over the 
river with great loss." 

"Again we have heard of a most decisive victory gained 
on the 10th instant. The loss on the Sikh side must have 
been awful. They were driven from their entrenchments 
into the river, and their bridge having been destroyed, 
they were upwards of half an hour in crossing, during 
which time an awful file firing of eight or ten regiments 
was pouring upon an immense mass of them, and the 
hoise artillery driving grape into them. The slaughter 
must have been awful." 

"April 10th. Occupied, in the morning, at the Third 
Psalm, after breakfast, reading Urdu and correspondence, 
and a little of the Quran with the Tafsir i Husaini. In 
school with the first class, on the first and second of 
Joshua, having finished the Pentateuch in Hebrew, also in 
assisting them to commence Greek. Am pleased with their 
improvement in Euclid and history. Preached in the 
evening at Kydganj chapel, from John 8:12 to a rather 
attentive audience." 

** May 6th. Overland letters bringing me tidings for 
which! was somewhat prepared, — the death of dear George. 
Cannot be sufficiently thankful for the grace given to 
prepare him to meet death. Afflicted family ! Dear mother, 
dear father, breach upon breach. Yet they can sing of 
mercy as well as of judgment. The rod of our Heavenly 
Father has been heavily laid upon us. May we be humbled. 



80 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

and brought nearer to him. Three sisters and one brother 
at Grod's right hand, to meet me the moment I depart 
hence to be with Christ. O how holy I ought to be in all 
holy conversation and godliness, how instant in prayer, 
how strong in faith, how pure and fervent in love, how 
ardent in zeal, how dead to this world, how alive to 
heavenly things ! O my God, take Thou full possession 
«^ of my soul. Let me not be so stupid, so cold and sluggish 
in prayer, so lacking in a due regard to Thy Kingdom. 
Dear Jesus, comfort my friends at home, give them that 
joy and peace, which Thou alone canst impart," 

"Aug. 8th. Occupied the last three days with Bro. 
Warren and native assistants in revising the translation of 
the Shorter Catechism, and preparing it for the approval 
of Synod : a pleasant though difficult work. Its words of 
grace are pleasant to go over, because drawn from the 
Bible. 

Two of my dear boys, Greorge and Yunas, are to join 
us in the communion to-morrow evening. Hope and 
rejoice, yet with trembUng. Edwin applied, but was defer- 
red till next time. Do not see the large boys as earnest 
for the salvation of the youuger ones as I wish. When 
shall we have more like Koilas Chunder Mookerjee ? " 

"Aug. 9th. . . . Lord's Supper in Hindustani, in the 
evening, services conducted by Bro. Freeman. Happy, 
very happy, to see George and Yunas among the com- 
municants. Had little Gulal, an orphan sent here a few 
months ago by Mr. Moncton, baptized by the name Albert 
Dod. May he be baptized by the Holy Ghost." 

" Sept. 26th. A Brahman, after service, wished to have 
a talk, and began with Sanskrit. I repeated a sliloh from 
Manu, and demanded its meaning, before we could proceed. 



^ 



GENERAL PROGRESS OP THE MISSION. 81 

This he was unable to give, and after several fruitless 
attempts at evasion, he backed out of the crowd, went into 
the street, and at the safe distance of several rods, poured 
forth another volley of the language in which he professed 
to be so learned." 

The missions of the American Presbyterian Church in 
India had now increased to eight stations classed under 
the heads of the Lodiana, Furrukhabad, and Allahabad r 
missions. To the first belonged the stations at Lodiana, 
Saharunpur, Sabathu, and Merut; to the second, Furruk- 
hal)ad, or Futtehgurh, Mynpury and Agra; and to the 
last, that of the city and district of Allahabad. 

At Lodiana and Allahabad printing presses were in 
operation issuing books and tracts in Hindustani and 
Hindi : at Lodiana also in Punjabi and at Allahabad also 
in Sanskrit and English. At Lodiana, Saharunpur, Fur- 
rukhabad, Mynpury and Allahabad, there were schools for 
children, and at Lodiana and Allahabad, high schools for 
pupils further advanced; that at Allahabad chiefly for the 
purpose of preparing young men to be ministers of the 
Grospel and helpers in Christian work. 

At Lodiana were stationed the Rev. , Messrs. Porter, 
Janvier and Morrison, with Grolok Nath, a native licentiate; 
at Saharunpur, the Rev. J. R. Campbell with assistant 
teachers ; at Sabathu, the Rev. Messrs. Newton and Jamie- 
son; at Merut, the Rev. J, Caldwell with Mrs. Caldwelb 
and Gabriel, a native assistant. At Furrukhabad the mis- 
sionaries were the Rev. J. L. Scott, W. H. M'Auley and 
Mrs. Nundy, with native teachers; at Mynpury, the Rev. 
J. J. Walsh, Mrs. Walsh, Hulasi, a native assistant, and 
native teachers; at Agra, the Rev. Messrs. J. Wilson, J. C. 
Rankin, Mrs. Wilson and Mrs. Rankin ; and at Allahabad, 



82 GENERAL PROGRESS Off THE MISSION. 

the Rev. Messrc. Warren, Freeman, Owen, Wray, and their 
wives, with native assistants and teachers. And on their 
way to India, designed for the Furrukhabad mission, were 
the Rev. Messrs. Irving and Seeley, with their wives, and 
Robert M. Munnis, a licentiate preacher. 

The printing press at Lodiana had commenced work, 
after a destructive fire; that at Allahabad had issued in 
the course of the preceding year, 4,579,000 pages in four 
different languages, Hindi, Hindustani, Sanskrit and 
English. 

In the schools, the missionaries encouraged by all 
means at their command the study of the English language, 
and of the vernaculars ; the former, in order that their 
pupils might have free access to the Christian literature, 
which they were prepared to put into thair hands ; and the 
latter, that the knowledge acquired by the student through 
the English language might at once be available through 
his own mother tongue. 

One of the results of the Sikh war was to extend the 
field of missions into the Punjab. On the first of January, 
1847, Golok Nath was ordained as an evangelist, by the 
Presbytery of Lodiana, and appointed to occupy the city 
of Jalandar, about 35 miles west of Lodiana, and the 
capital of the Doul) called by its name, the first district of 
the Punjab annexed to the British empire.' Lahor was 
occupied by Messrs. Newton and Forman in 1849, Nov. 21, 
and a school was commenced on the 19th of December.'' 
In 1848, Mr. J. UUmann, a German long resident in India, 
was licensed by the Presbytery of Furrukhabad to preach 
the G-ospel, and added to the force of Allahabad.^ A new 

1) For. Miss. Chron. XV. p. 148, 225. 2) For. Miss. Feb., 1856, p 263. 
3) For. Miss. Chron. XVII, p. 48. 



GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 83 

station was constituted at Ambala, and occupied by Mr. 
and Mrs. Jamieson, in the beginning of the year 1848.' Mr. 
Morrison was transferred to Sabathu in the course of the 
same year.'^ Futtehpore, as a branch of the Allahal)ad 
mission, was occujjied by Mr. Munnis and four native 
helpers.^ Subsequently to the annexation of the whole 
Punjab, Rawal Pindi was assumed as a mission station 
for the northwest of that province, and also as a position 
from which to operate upon the Afghans. An English 
Christian friend made the oifer of $7,500 to the Board if 
a mission were established for that people, and the New 
Testament translated into their language. Nearly at the 
same time the services of five brethren were placed at the 
disposal of the committee for India. One of these, Mr. 
Lowenthal, from the Theological Seminary at Princeton, 
was considered to be peculiarly fitted, by his linguistic 
talents and acquirements, for the mission to the Afghans. 
The Lodiana missionaries were requested to select two of 
their number, and assign them to whatever point in the 
Punjab was deemed most eligible, one of them from the 
older missionaries to be still employed in Hindu work, 
and the other, from the newly arrived, to take up Pushtoo 
studies. Missionary effort within Afghanistan was not 
yet practicable. The result was the choice of Rawal Pindi, 
as the station, and of Messrs. Morrison and Lowenthal as 
the missionaries. They were soon afterward separated, 
and while Mr. Morrison remained in Rawal Pindi, Mr. 
Lowenthal was located nearer to the field which his views 
contemplated, at Peshawar, on the west side of the Indus. 
Under the influence of accumulating Christian intel- 
ligence and culture, a society of young men, native Hindus, 



1) Ibid. XVI. p. 212. 2) F. M. Chron. XVI. p. 113. 3) Ibid. Sept., 1852, 
p. 72. 



84 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

trained in the schools to Christian science and Enghsh 
literature, but not spiritually prepared to accept the 
Gospel, was formed by themselves at Agra, under the 
name of the " Young Bengal Literary Society of Agra," 
in relation to the part}^ in Calcutta calling themselves 
"Young Bengal," and associated for mutual support in 
casting off the practices and prejudices of Hinduism. The 
work of the Society consisted mostly in " debating, read- 
ing essays, and supporting and teaching an English school. 
In religion, they rejected Hinduism without l)ecoming 
Christian, but taking the ground of pure Monotheism, In 
their meetings and exercises they used the English lan- 
guage; and regarded the Bible as an aathority to be ap- 
pealed to in questions of right and wrong. Actual pro- 
fessions of Christian faith were still few ; but increasing 
in number in all the missions. And in the conversion of 
some, who had never been under the personal instruction 
of the missionaries, evidence was furnished that the in- 
fluence of their books and pupils was operating beyond the 
bounds of the stations.^ Many of these enterprises received 
liberal contributions from British residents, and even from 
a few natives of rank and wealth, among whom were the 
Rajah of Kapurthala and the Sikh Prince Dhuleep Singh. 
The latter professed Christianity and was baptized by the 
English Chaplain at Futtehgurh in 1863.'^ At Futtehgurh 
a village was erected for the accommodation of Christian 
natives, in which they could pursue their oc(mpations, en- 
joy society and their religious privileges without inter- 
ruption, or offense. And some native villages in that 
quarter, applied through their own authorities, for regular 

1) P. M. Nov. p. 104. 

2> F. M. for July, 1853, p. 46. Also for Oct. p. 90. 



GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 85 

instruction in the Christian religion. A similar movement 
took place at Rawal Pindee, where a number of people 
rejecte<l Hinduism, ^ and accepted what thej knew of 
Christianity. 

Mr. Campl)ell at Saharunpur reported that twelve 
Hindus in that city had renounced idolatry, and were in 
the habit of assembling daily to read the Christian Scrip- 
tures, and inquire about Christianity.* They were headed 
by a learned Pundit. 

At the melas at Allahabad, a greater number gave 
attention, and more serious attention, to the preaching of 
the Gospel.^ Mr. Woodside of the Lodiana mission com- 
menced about the same time his work at Dehra, where 
although encountering much opposition from Grovernment 
officials as well as natives, he was favored with encouraging 
success. He opened his school January 1st. 1854, with two 
pupils and closed its first session at the end of September 
with nearly eighty. He adds in his letter on the subject, 
" I have a very respectable congregation of Europeans 
every Sabbath, and a prayer meeting on Thursday evening. 
I have gathered around me a little native community of 
about twenty souls, who all attend our exercises." * 

By that date also, British roads, canals, telegraphs, 
railways, steamboats and industrial methods were estab- 
lishing an unanswerable argument for the superiority of 
Education among Christians, and effacing the prestige of 
Hindu antiquity while providing increased facilities for 
prosecution of Christian work."* 

On the other hand, opposition began to be more sys- 
tematically organized. The society of educated but un- 

1) F. M. Jan. 1854, p. 158. 2) F. M. May,lS54, p. 285. 3) F. M. June, 1854, 28, 
4) F. M., Feb., 1855, p. 258. 5) F. M,. June, 1855, p. 2-^. 



86 GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

believing Hindus, who having lost respect for their native 
religion had no faith in that of Christ, operated to promote 
unbelief. Infidel books were procured from Europe, which 
they reprinted and distributed among their countrymen. 

Mr. Morrison, who had already acted as a pioneer in 
several directions, in the year 1855, made a tour of explora- 
tion from Labor through the west and north of the Punjab, 
between the Jelum and the Indus, and described new 
fields of missionary labor. Already the mission had schools 
in that region, at Rawal Pindi, Jelum, and Pind Dadal 
Khan,^ and ere the close of next year, the stations had been 
increased by the addition of Rurkee and Peshawar. 

About the same date occurred the annexation of Oude 
to the British dominions. " This," writes Mr. UUmann, 
" opens a new field of missionary labor, and may perhaps 
by and by be taken up by the Furrukhabad mission, as it 
is close to us, its western boundary stretching along the 
left bank of the Granges, almost from Allahabad to Furruk- 
habad. Three of our converts during the last year were 
from that province. Lucknow, the capital of Oude, num- 
bers not less than 300,000 inhabitants, probably more. 
Some estimate it as high as 600,000 or 800,000. Con- 
sidering the nature of the country and its inhabitants, it 
will no doubt one day become a most important field for 
missionary operations." ^ 

By the Rep<^>rt of the year closing with October 1, 1856, 
the stations comprehended under the two Missions of 
Lodiana and Furrukhabad extended across the Punjab 
including Peshawar,^ Rawal Pindi, Labor and Jalundar ; 
and in a belt of the same direction southeastward, includ- 



1) F. M., Sept.. 1855, p. 98-100. 2) F. M., June, IS^, p. 17. 
3) Ibid., March, 1857. p. 333. 



GENERAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 87 

ing Lodiana, Sabathu, Ambala, Dehra, Sahanmpur and 
Roorkee then under the head of Furriikhabad, Futtehgurh, 
Agra, Mynpury, Futtehpur, Banda and Allahabad. The 
stations connected with Fnrrukhabad lay at some distance 
from those of the Lodiana connection, but they continued 
the direction as a belt of Christian schools, along the great 
routes of communication between Bengal and Afghanistan, 
from the junction of the Ganges and Jumna to the west 
bank of the Indus. The stations of Saharunpur, Dehra, 
and Rurkee were manned by missionaries of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church of the United States.* 

Over this field, the men, with whom our narrative 
began, were dispersed at several important points. Mor- 
rison was at Rawal Piudi, where he had just organized a 
Christian church and school ; Janvier was at Lodiana, 
together with a few fellow laborers of kindred devotion, 
sustaining the heavy work of that mother-mission and 
centre of the larger group of stations ; Freeman was at 
Mynpurie alone with only one or two native helpers, and 
Owen, at Allahabad, having been recently transferred from 
the charge of the Mission College, which he had built up 
to an unexpected prosperity, to other duties in which more 
of his time could be secured for translation and exposition 
of Scripture. They were associated with others no less 
zealous and laborious. Altogether, and without any in- 
vidious comparison with others, or among themselves, the 
missionaries who then occupied that ground, as a har- 
monious company of Christian workers, both men and 
women, are entitled to one common tribute of respect, as 
the founders of the church in Northern India. And so 
firmly was their work done, as far as it went, that even 

1) F. M., April, 1863, p. 341. 



88 GENEEAL PROGRESS OF THE MISSION. 

the terrible convulsion, which upturned for a time the civil 
government, and broke to pieces the army, although it 
shook the structure of that mission church, did not dis- 
place a single stone of its foundation. 



TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 89 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

To the mission work of preacliiug and teaching, it was 
found expedient to add that of writing? and superintending 
the printing and publishing of books. Of course, in that 
department, the object is to issue such works as shall com- 
municate Christion knowledge in a way to arrest attention. 
Their publication is effected by the agency of the mission - 
aries themselves freely distributing them to persons who 
can read, and seem likely to make a proper use of them . 
On that head mistakes are no doubt often mad?, and books 
given to persons who never read them, if they do not even 
destroy them. But many do read, and are thereby led to 
inquire further after the way of life. Upon their preach- 
ing tours the missionaries take supplies of books and 
tracts with them, and give them away, with the view of 
confirming and deepening the impression of their preach - 
ing. At the Melas, where Hindus assemble in vast mul- 
titudes, they make a point of being present, with a goodly 
number of their printed messengers. Sometimes two or 
more missionaries go in company to those assemblages, and 
keep up the work of preaching and conversing with the 
people, and distributing books most of the time. 

At Allahabad the Mission Press was set up and con- 
ducted for several years by the Rev. Joseph Warren, and 
upon the removal of Mr. Warren to Agra, in 1851, was 
carried on by the Rev. Lawrence G. Hay.' 

1) F. Miss., January, 1852, p. 128. 



90 TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

An important agency in this work was the North India 
Bible Society, auxiliary to the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, which was formed at Agra in the year 1845. It 
was constituted and supported by the missionaries and the 
friends of missions in Upper India. Though not enjoying 
a large income, that society proved to be eminently useful 
in " promoting the translation, and the revision of trans- 
lations already made, of the Sacred Scriptures into several 
Indian dialects, and the printing and circulating of the 
sacred volume." ^ It was in connection with this institu- 
tion that some of Mr. Owen's most laborious wort was 
executed, consisting chiefly in translation, revision of trans- 
lation, and exposition of Scripture. 

One of the earliest of these enterprises by the mission- 
aries of Allahabad was that of a volume of Urdu sermons, 
expository of select portions of Scripture, for which Mr. 
Owen undertook to furnish an exposition of some of the 
Psalms,^ a work which ultimately extended to a com- 
mentary upon the whole book of Psalms. Among the 
resolutions adopted by the tentative meeting of Synod at 
Futtehgurh, Dec, 1844, was one for expediting the trans- 
lation into Hindi and Urdu of the standards of the church, 
in which the Larger and Shorter Catechisms were assigned 
to the missionaries of Allahabad. By another, a revision 
of the Hindi and Urdu versions of the Scriptures, then in 
use, w.is recommended as soon as the work could be done. 

The former resolution was adopted by the first regular 
meeting, Nov., 1845, and a committee appointed to inquire 
into and report as to what had been done, and to recom- 
mend some plan for the accomplishment of that important 
object. The committee reported the action of the ten- 

1) F. M., May, 1852, p. 188. 2} For. Miss., January, 1852, p. 203-20«. 



TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 91 

talive meeting, and that the translators had made con- 
siderable progress, and recommended to the Synod thai 
the Presbyteries be instructed to continue those commit- 
tees, directing them to make over their respective portions 
to a committee of revision to be appointed by Synod, who 
should revise the whole when completed. The report was 
accepted and adopted. 

Among the works prepared for worship and for instruct- 
ing native Christians and inquirers, the book of Psalms 
and Hymns was prepared by Messrs. Janvier and Ullmann, 
and practical expositions of Isaiah, Daniel, the Creation and 
Fall of Man, by Mr. Owen.^ As Secretary of the Hindi 
Sub-committee of the North India Bible Society, Mr. Owen 
undertook to revise the Hindi translation of the Old 
Testament made by the Rev. William Bowley. The whole 
was carefully compared with the Hebrew, and altered in so 
many places to make it more conformable to the original, 
that the result was almost a new version. Of that work, 
to which the reviser, although he did not feel that it would 
be just to Mr. Bowley to place his name on the title page, 
in a note prefixed assigns to him all the credit of original 
translation, the first volume, from Genesis to the second 
book of Kings inclusive, was printed in 1851 at the Mission 
Press of Allahabad, then under the superintendence of the 
Rev. L. a. Hay. 

It was also thought desirable to draw up a systematic 
treatise of Christian Theology adapted to the understand- 
ing of the Hindu people, and for purposes of education. 
This also was prepared by Mr. Owen. 

While engaged in these labors, additional to the ordi- 
nary duties of the station, about the beginning of the year 



1) F. M., October, 1856, p. 154. 



92 TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

1856, Mr. Owen felt called upon to submit to one of those 
trials, incident to missionary life in a heathen land, among 
the hardest to bear. With all the care expended in building 
up a system of instruction for heathen youth, it was still 
in the midst of heathen influences, struggling against 
them, and suffering from them, — influences to which the 
missionaries could not subject their own children, in that 
period of life when the character is so largely formed by 
comparisons, Mr. and Mrs. Owen perceived that they 
ought no longer to delay the apprehended separation. 
While he should remain at his work, Mrs. Owen under- 
took to bring their son to America, for the further pro- 
secution of his studies among his father's kindred. Mr. 
Owen accompanied his wife and son as far as practicable, 
and parted from them on the 20th of February in the 
Bay of Bengal. 

It was the season of religious anniversaries in Calcutta. 
He accord Dgly remained a few days in that city for the 
purpose of attending some of the religious meetings, 
enjoying at the same time the hospitality and society of 
highly valued friends, in business circles as well as among 
missionaries. At the Scottish Free Church, he had the 
pleasure of listening to the preaching of the Rev. John 
Milne ; and at the Baptist church to that of Mr. Leslie ; 
spent an evening with Dr. Mullens at his own house, 
where he met with the venerable missionary Lacroix, 
went out to see Dr. Duff then residing with his daughter, 
Mrs. Watson, at some distance from Calcutta, and in 
passing through Serampore made the valuable acquaint- 
ance of Mr. Townsend, editor of the Friend of India. 

Returning to Calcutta, he visited the church mission 
school at Mirzapore, the Sanskrit College, School of In- 



TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 93 

dustrial Ai't, G-eiieral Hospital, Medical CoUei^e, the London 
Missionary Society's Home, and other institutions of mis- 
sionary and general Christian benevolence. His return to 
Allahabad was a diiferent kind of progress from that 
which he made in 1841. Leaving Calcutta on the 1st of 
March, on the morning of the 5th he "opened the carriage 
door in a delightful fragrance of mango blossoms, within 
a few miles of Benares." " About half- past seven I came 
in sight of the Ganges, and soon found myself on the ghat, 
surrounded by large athletic forms, presenting a marked 
contrast to the diminutive Bengalis. I also heard my own 
Urdu and Hindi again, and could scarcely realize that I 
had left the Bengali Schehari mekari so far behind." A 
partly executed railway had wrought the change. 

March 9th, he preached at Allahabad in Hindustani, 
and resumed his usual lecture in the afternoon, and on 
Monday recommenced his Hindustani worship with the 
boys, at the usual morning hour. 

Among other occupations, he writes of being at work 
upon his exposition of the Psalms, the printing of which 
was going forward. 

For many months his journal letters constitute one 
long but diversified, " Tristia," containing details of the 
station, of his friends, the tenderest and warmest express- 
ions of attachment and respect for the Munises, the Hays, 
and others, their toils, their joys, their sorrows and 
bereavements, and their mutual support, their social work 
and devotions, their hopes and fears for the native youth 
under their charge, in the midst of which not one harsh or 
censorious word occurs. Every day's news is the record 
of Christian work, of Christian life in a little isolated 
Christian community, breathing nothing but tender Chris- 



94 TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

tian affections, and closes with some variation on the same 
refrain, a prayer for his absent wife and child. 

"April 10th, 1856." The Ex-kiig of Oude entered 
Allahabad yesterday morning under a salute of 21 ^uns. 
He is on his way to Calcutta, and some say to England. 
The latter I doubt. I question if he knows where Eng- 
land is. He has lost his kingdom without firing a shot in 
its defence. It ought to have been taken from him long 
ago. The arrangements for its government, under the 
Company's rule, are going on quietly and surely. Oude is 
now an open mission field. I have offered myself to the 
mission to send me to Banda or to Oude, or to wherever 
else they may think best. They think that I ought to 
stay here, for the present." The kingdom of Oude was 
formally annexed to the British possessions on Feb. 7, 
1856, by the Grovernor General, the Marquis of Dalhousie. 

"April 22. Mr. Bradford returned this evening from 
Oude. He gives a glowing account of the resources of the 
country, and of the civility of the inhabitants, and their 
joy at the establishment of the British rule. None regret 
it except the chakladars and others who formerly had it in 
their power to oppress the people."' 

Meanwhile in addition to all his other occupations Mr. 
Owen was working up his exposition of the Psalms in 
Urdu, his Hindi New Testament and Urdu Theology in 
parallel lines of labor, carrying on the printing of the first 
at the same time, and wishing he could get on faster. 

May 19th. "The sickness and mortality around us are 
very melancholy." Mr. Hay and his family had to retreat 
to Landour. Other missionary families had also gone to 
the mountains, and many of the natives connected with 

1) MS. Jour, of 1856. 



TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 95 

the school were ill of fever. Still, under Ihe oppressively 
hot easterly wind, Mr. Owen pressed forward his work. 

Mrs. Owen lauded in England on the 24th of May. 
Through the kindness of friends, her son was entered at 
Eton school, where he remained during the period of her 
stay in England. 

At the Mela of that year Mr. Owen had the assistance 
of only native helpers. " Simeon and George were on the 
ground when I arrived, and Mirza and Caleb, Yuuas and 
Joel soon came. I then divided the forces, stationing 
Simeon, Yunas and Calel) at one place, and Mirza, G-eorge 
and Joel at another, and divided my own time as equally 
as possible between the two stations. In this way we 
kept up continued preaching and discussion at each station 
until near twelve o'clock. I was particularly pleased with 
the spirited manner in which the preachers carried on their 
labors. The day was cloudy without rain, and therefore 
very pleasant." 

August 16. " Tucker has been writing to me about a 
new edition of the Hindi Bible, towards which he and his 
brother are ready to give Rs. 4000. He wishes a stand- 
ard edition brought out, and I have proposed that it be 
in one volume, instead of three, as at present. We have 
both written to the Agra Bible Society on the subject." 

Sept. 26. "Have just received orders from the Agra ^^i^Cf, 
Bible Society to enlarge the edition of the Hindi New 
Testament from 2,500 to 5000 copies, and besides to print 
5000 copies extra of Luke and Acts, to be bound up to- 
gether, and 5000 copies of Matthew and John." 

Oct. 7. " We had a pleasant meeting of Presbytery 
this evening. Gopinath, the moderator, preached a good 
Hindustani sermon, after which we proceeded to business. 



96 TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

Among other items, we received reports from the cate- 
chists of their labors during the last five months. Greorge 
and Joel applied to be received as catechists under the 
care and direction of the Presbytery. We proceeded at 
once to examine them, and kept them under examination 
until after ten o'clock. The examination was all in Hind- 
ustani, and it was pleasant to see the interest the native 
audience seemed to take in it. The result was, they were 
received. We have now under the care and direction of 
the Presbytery six catechists, viz: Mirza, Simeon, Yunas, 
George, Kasim Ali, and Joel. 

In November, 1856, Mr. Butler, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church of America, visited Allahabad in the course 
of a tour, undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining where 
his church could be most useful in missionary work in 
Northern India. Mr. Owen had received letters from him, 
and had expressed a readiness to afford him any aid in 
his power. 

"Nov. 21. This afternoon, while I was at dinner, a 
dak carriage came to the door, and the servants came tell- 
ing me that a gentleman was enquiring after me. I w^ent 
out, and found Mr. and Mrs. Butler. They had started 
from Benares to go through Oude to Eohilcund; but sud- 
denly turned and came to Allahabad, I had them at once 
seated at the table with me, and have given them a room, 
in which I hope they will be comfortable. He has been 
asking me a good deal about India this evening; and with 
maps spread before us, I have been giving him all the in- 
formation, of the kind he requires, which I possess. He 
appears to be a very go(Kl man, well informed, and of good 
abilities. He proposes going to Kohilcund, and thence 
down to Benares, in time for the conference in January; 



TRANSLAtldN AND PUBLICATION. 97 

and talks of joining me in Bimdelciind, to look at that 
field, should he, after survoyiug Rohilc\md, not fix upou 
that as the field of labor for their ehurcli." The conference, 
here referred to, was a general meeting of missionaries 
called to meet in Benares. 

"Mr. Butler has applied to our misvsion for a native 
assistant. He comes from our own country, and in an 
honest manly way asks for assistance. I applied to the 
other l)rethren, but no one seems able to give him a man, 
I have therefore given him Joel; and with the sanction 
of the mission, poor Joel is preparing to go. It is a bitter 
trial to him, and a severe one to me. But it is our duty 
as well as privilege to help a Christian l)rother in need. 
It is doing what we would lie thankful to have done for 
us m similar circumstances. Joel is an excellent vouno- 
man. I have nothmg l)ut good to say of him, and can 
without reserve recommend him to Mr. Butler as worthy 
of all confidence." Mr. Butler was then on his wav to 
Bareilly, the station selected for the mission of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

" Feb. 5. Mullens and Beaumont arrived this evenini^-. 
At the close of the Benares conference, they started for 
Agra, Delhi and other places up the country, and are now 
on their return to Calcutta." 

"Feb. 6. Went with Mullens and Beaumont this 
morning to the Mela and Fort." Mr. Mullens took photo- 
graphic views of the principal objects of interest, making 
also particular inquiries about all, — inquiries which few 
residents of the place were as well qualified to answer as 
Mr. Owen. 

"Feb. 16. My dear venerable friend, Mr. Lacroix, left 
me this afternoon for Benares. I have indeed had a treat 



98 TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 

in his society. He is in every sense a noble man. And 
his fine natural and acquired endowments are sanctified 
in a very eminent degree by God's grace." "His visit to 
me has been like the visit of an angel." 

" We are daily expecting the MacMuUins from Calcutta. 
Hay told me to-day that he had heard from them from 
Benares." The persons here mentioned were Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert M'Mullin, who had left Philadelphia on the 11th 
of the preceding September, and after a voyage round the 
Cape were now coming up the country to their appointed 
station at Futtehgurh. On the 18th of February, Mr. 
Owen welcomed their arrival at Allahabad. 

Mr. Owen's Christian charity, his cordial courtesy, and 
sound judgment secured for him the highest respect and 
confidence of British residents in both the civil and mili- 
tary service. With some of them it amounted to affec- 
tionate friendship. And many were ready to contribute 
generously to enterprises in which he was concerned. 
Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, who seemed to truly 
love the Lord, were alike welcomed to his house and 
taken to his heart. His long, almost uninterrupted 
residence at Allahabad, with the interest which he took in 
its public affairs, rendered him, in many respects, a valu- 
able advisor to the officers of government. His discrim- 
ination of character, though softened by Christian charity, 
was quick and clear. Men who resisted the cause he loved, 
or sought to defeat efforts on behalf of it, did not escape a 
keen criticism of their action, although, where not neces- 
sary to a public good, such dissections were confided to his 
journal alone. At the date to which our narrative has 
arrived, by reason of death, and changes in office, and 
return of missionaries to America, he had become one of 



TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION. 99 

the oldest foreii^n residents at the station, and his opinions 
the more highly esteemed by men of all the Christian 
denominations there represented. 

March 10th, 1857. "Our new Grovernor General lacks 
the pre-eminent ability of Lord Dalliousie, and we are 
approaching a crisis, in which a man of pre-eminent ability 
will be required." 

March 21st, he writes: "There are signs of trouble 
abroad in the native community. The Sepoys are becom- 
ing troublesome and mutinous. Hitherto, the matter has 
been dealt with leniently, but the probability is, that it 
must be put down with a strong hand. The chief trouble 
has been at Barrackpore and Berhampore. I got a letter 
from Beaumont the other day, who wrote that they were 
obliged to send a steamer off in haste to Maulmein to 
bring up a European regiment for putting down a mutiny 
at Barrackpore." 

" Several regiments have lately become mutinous, and 
given no little anxiety. The 19th was disbanded the other 
day, at Barrackpore. The Mohammedans talk of wishing 
to massacre all the infidel English. God is our protector." 

Mrs. Owen had now reached the home of her husband's 
relations at Bedford, in the State of New York, to whose 
care their son was to be intrusted for his education. 



100 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE MISSION AT ALLAHABAD DURING THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

Apprehensions of danger had been abroad in the atmos- 
phere of India for weeks. Rumors vague and aiithorless 
were passed from neighbor to neighbor, and the European 
residents scarcely knew to what sources they were indebted 
for the impressions of alann they received. On the 14th of 
May, 1857, Mr. Owen had been busy all day translating 
and explaining the Scriptures for the pupils of his school, 
and his little congregation of converts, and with a view to 
that Christian reading pul)lic, to which he looked forward 
in faith, as the fruit of missionary effort. Toward even- 
ing, he rose from his work, and Avent out to a friend's 
house, to learn if any positive news had arrived in the 
course of the day. His friend, Mr. Court, the magistrate 
of Allalial)ad, in' the East India Company's service, had 
just come from the fort, and was in possession of the latest 
military intelligence. It was, to some extent, positive 
enough. Dissatisfaction existed extensively in the native 
army. The actual disbanding at Barrackpore was already 
known. Other cases of insubordination were now reported 
at Calcutta, at Madras, and in the Punjab. And at 
Ambala, Lucknow, Benares, Meerut and Agra it was told 
that things . looked threatening. "And here," said Mr. 
Court, " they are getting guns into position in the fort. 
There is a suppressed rumor among the natives of an in- 
tended general massacre of the Europeans at the station." 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 101 

Mr. Owen's family were still absent in the United 
States. But over and above the danger threatening the 
Europeans, his fellow-missionaries and himself, the fate 
which might befall the Christian converts of his charge, 
and whether they would prove faithfid in the day of trial, 
occasioned him great anxiety. Next morning rose peace- 
fully. At an early hour, he called at the house of his 
fellow missionary, Mr. Munnis, and there heard of inflam- 
matory notices in circulation among the natives. The 
character of the military forces at the place also created 
apprehension. And thus he wrote : " The Sixth Regiment 
of North India, now stationed here, are said to be in a very 
disaffected state. Ther* are no European troops at this 
place. This is very wrong to leave so large a station and 
magazine so unprotected. A few companies of Sikhs have 
lately l)een got into the fort, and the whole garrison is in 
their hands. They may prove loyal, in case of an outbreak. 
Most people think they will." " Hitherto I have kept mv 
mind easy, hoping that the storm might blow over, with- 
out much injury. But the events of the last few days, up 
the country, are of a very alarming character. I have 
received a letter from Vere, dated Agra, May 11th, in which 
he says, that they had learned, by telegraph from Meerut, 
of a mutiny of the Third Native Cavalry, who had set fire 
to their own lines, and to several bungalows, and killed 
and wounded some European officers and soldiers. After- 
wards we heard that the ch'ik from Meerut was stopped, 
and that the telegraph wires were cut. Then came in 
alarming rumors of the state of things in this city, of the 
willingness, on the part of a large number, to join the 6th 
Regiment in breaking open the jail, plundering the city, 
and massacring the European residents. A public notice 



102 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

of a conciliatory kind, sent through the city by Mr. Court, 
has tended greatly to quiet the minds of the j^eople." 

May 16th. " Last night, I drove to Mr. Court's to get 
the news from up the country. Full particulars from 
Meerut have not yet reached us. For there is no dnk on 
that road from a nearer point than Allygurh. The attack 
appears to have taken place last Sunday night (10th inst.), 
and to have come chiefly from the 3rd Regiment of Native 
Cavalry, though the 11th N. I. are also implicated, as well 
as several others. Regimental lines and government offices 
have been burned down, and a vast number of private 
bungalows, the jails also, and the felons let loose. The 
telegraph office has been burned, and all the dale horses 
cut to pieces. The country for thirty miles around is said 
to have joined in revolt. 

" Mr. Colvin, the Lieutenant Governor, has telegraphed 
from Agra down to this station, that the treasure at 
Meerut is safe, and that they are forming parties to scour 
the cotintry. At Meerut they have three European 
regiments. 

" When I came home, I found the Munnises in a state 
of great alann. Simeon had just been telling them that 
there was a panic and religious frenzy in the city, that an 
outbreak might be expected at any moment, and that the 
missionaries would be the first objects of attack. Hitherto 
my rest at night has not been disturbed by these things, 
but I did not sleep much last night, after such excitement. 
I had, however, a comfortable season of prayer, and medi- 
tation on the divine Word, 'The foundation of Grod 
standeth sure, having this seal: The Lord knoweth them 
that are his.' I came to India to give my life for this land. 
My life is in God's hands, to be disposed of as he shall see 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 103 

best for the interests of his own church. I have been a 
very unprofitable servant. If God sees best now to remove 
nie, he can easily fill my place with one far more faithful 
and efficient. May I be found in Christ." 

On the 31st of May Mr. Owen received a letter from 
Mr. Freeman of Futtehgurh, bringing intelligence that all 
the missionaries in Delhi had been murdered, and that in 
the massacre there were not less than two hundred Europe- 
an and East Indian victims. As yet few of the particulars 
were certainly known at Allahabad. 

" June 4th. Last Sabbath evening, about church time, 
Mr. Mantell, of the railway, drove over to say that we were 
in great danger ; that the people at the railway station 
had all been warned into the station, and that an attack 
was expected. We got through the night without any 
disturbance. On Monday morning I went over to the 
station to ascertain the true cause of alarm. It was a 
telegraphic message from Sir Henry Lawrence at Lucknow, 
that the Sepoys there had mutinied on Saturday night, 
that they had a fight, and that three European officers had 
been wounded, and three killed.' Etaweh also had been 
burned, and Mr. Hume, the magistrate, escaped in an 
Ayah's dress. On Sunday night, the mutineers at Luck- 
now made another attack and killed some Europeans, but 
were driven out from the station fifteen miles. We were 
apprehensive lest they might come this way, but after- 
wards heard that they had gone off toward Seetapore, in a 
northwesterly direction from Lucknow, and were conse- 
quently anxious about that station and Futtehgurh." 

" June 5th (Friday). We have had no mail from 
Cawnpore for three days past. 

1) At Lucknow the mutiny broke out on the SOth of May. 



104 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

"This morning the mail from Calcutta came in, and the 
man who drove the cart, brought the news that Benares 
was in a blaze, and that he could not come throuo^h that 
station. 

"We are now all ordered into the fort to night. It is 
supposed that the mutineers from Benares will make a 
dash at Allahabad ; and arrangements have been made t o 
meet them. We are all gathering up a few articles of 
clothing to take with us, into the fort. 'No beds, no 
baggage, light kits the order of the day.' Go])inathsays 
he mil not go, and prefers remaining here. For he says 
the Sikhs may turn and butcher us all." 

"June 9th, Tuesday. Here lam, in the fort, living in 
a small tent with all the property I have left in the world, 
comprised in a few changes of clothes, my Hebrew Bible, 
Greek Testament, Turretin's Theology, Witsius' Economy 
of the Covenants, and a few other odd volumes. All my 
furniture, my library, and most of my private manuscripts 
and papers have been consumed. Our dear Jumna house 
has been burned. The church has been robbed, also the 
mission college, and the whole place completely sacked. 
The native Christians have been scattered I know not 
where. I can only see the place from the ramparts of the 
fort, but cannot go there to inquire ; nor have I yet been 
able to ascertain the particulars of their condition. We 
feared they were all murdered, but hear that their lives 
have been spared. The station and cantonments of Allah- 
abad are in ashes. Mr. Hay's house has been burned, and 
we hear that the press has also gone. Scarcely a bungalow 
seems to have been left. The work of conflagration is still 
in progress. Day and night new fires are added to the 
vast scene of desolation and smoking embers. Here we are 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 105 

shut up in the fort, and not an effort has been made to 
arrest the work of destruction. 

"On Friday night, June 5th, I assisted in watching the 
fort with a company of volunteers. For we had no 
European troops, and were quite at the mercy of the 
Sepoys and Sikhs. Of course I got no sleep that night, 
and went home to our bungalow, on Saturday, and got a 
good rest under the punkah. All there was so quiet that 
T felt strongly inclined to remain next night. Gopinath 
and his family had spent two or three nights in the fort., 
but thought themselves more insecure there than at our 
house. They were extremely afraid, not only of the Sepoys, 
but also of the Sikhs. I tried to get them to come in, on 
Saturday night, but they chose to remain, and I left Kalian 
there, with an order to make them as comfortable as pos- 
sible. All seemed to be expecting something that night, 
and were on the alert. The volunteers, amounting to some 
eighty, were divided into three squads, one to protect the 
flagstaff, where it was supposed an enemy might attempt 
to scale the walls, another to protect a weak point on the 
Jumna, and the third to be with the main guard at the 
gate. At nine o'clock the volunteers met and were told 
off to their respective duties for the night, The moon was 
full, and shining beautifully. It was impossible to reahze, 
when (coming through the bazar, that danger was near. 
The shops were open and the people were quietly at their 
occupations. 

"Arrangements had been made to meet the mutineers on 
their arrival from Benares. A detachment of the 6th R. 
N. I. were stationed at the Daragunge bridge, with two 
nine-pounders, and a complement of native artillerymen. 
Sowars (native cavalry) were placed on the Benares road 



106 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

to watch the approach of men from that direction, and on 
their coming to fall back at a gallop, and to give notice to 
the officer commanding at the bridge. Lieut. Alexander, 
with his irregular cavalry, was at Alopee Bagh. It was 
therefore hoped that if the mutineers came, they would 
meet with a warm recej^tion, and soon be overcome. I had 
little confidence in the regiment, and in this feeling was 
far fnmi lieing alone. All the officers, however, placed 
implicit reliance on the Sepoys, perpetually singing the 
praises of their loyalty. They apj^eared to me the worst 
set of Sepoys I ever saw. Their coimtenances seemed 
equal to any amount of barbarity and brutality. My ima- 
gination had probably been tinged by recent occurrences 
elsewhere. Having no European troops, we were shut up 
to hope for the best. What madness in the authorities to 
leave such a garrison as this, with 33,000 stand of arms, 
entirely in the hands of natives. Had the Sikhs chosen 
to join the regiment against us, not one of us would have 
been left alive. 

"On Saturday evening, about nine o'clock, Court walked 
up to me, as I was standing near the old pillar, remarking, 
'You must not be surprised if we have something to-night ; 
for the telegraphic wire from Benares has just been cut, 
in the midst of a message,' requesting me at the same 
time to stay with the ladies, if anything should occur. 
I came up and joined in worship with the Hays and Muu- 
nises and was on my way back to the tent, when we began 
to hear a rattling of musketry in cantonments. The alarm 
was immediately sounded, and all the volunteers rushed 
to their posts. I ran up and gave notice to our friends. 
They were soon out on the balcony, where in a few minutes 
all the women, leaving the tents, were collected. Hay, 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 107 

Munnis and myself then closed all the doors leading from 
the stairways and stood with loaded pistols, ready to shoot 
down the tirst native who might attempt an assault upon 
the ladies and children. We saw a native quietly sitting 
among the ladies with a sword in his hand, whom we dis- 
armed and turned out iu double quick time. The rattling 
of musketry continued about half an hour, the sound 
reaching us from various points between cantonments and 
the bridge. We thought that the mutineers had probably 
got in, and made a combined attack at those various 
points, and hoped they were getting a good cutting up." 

"A few days previously the Sepoys at Allahabad had 
seized and delivered up to the authorities, two men, who, 
they said, had come from the city to incite them to rebel- 
lion. They had also expressed very deep regi*et that the 
ladies of the station had not all assembled in one building, 
and placed themselves under their protection, instead of 
coining into the fort ! On the previous Monday they 
offered their services to the government to go and fight the 
rebels, and on Saturday evening at 6 o'clock, on parade, 
they received the thanks of the Governor General, and 
acknowledged it by three hearty cheers. The officers' wives 
were, of course, deeply anxious about their husbands, who 
were in the midst of all that firing. One after another 
came to me asking, 'Do you think the Sepoys will be 
loyal?' I could only say, in the effort to comfort them, 
' I hope so.' Others were highly indignant that any such 
question should be asked, or that the least doubt should 
be entertained of their loyalty." 

" Some time after the firing ceased, we saw a gentle- 
man coming from the main gate to the barracks. Hitherto 
we knew nothing of what had occurred. I went and 



108 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

opeiK^cl a door and called him. His first words were, 
'Alexander is Ijin^ dead outside. But tell Mrs. Harvard 
and Mrs. Simpson that their husbands are safe here in the 
fort; although Col. Simpson's horse has been riddled 
through with bullets. The 6th are in open mutiny.' 
There was a general rush to me to know what had hap- 
pened. The ladies, who a few minutes before were so 
strongly standing up for the Sepoys, were utterly con- 
founded. I went to Mrs. Simpson and delivered the mes- 
sage. She seized my hand, and fell on my arm with a 
loud ery. In a few minutes Col. Simpson came up with 
his clothes covered with blood, and gave an account of his 
almost miraculous escape. I must however mention what 
occurred at the gate, before the Col. came up to his quar- 
ters, which was the turning point with us in the fort . 

"The one hundred Sepoys at the main gate, who were 
mounted 0:1 the main guard, were commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Brasyer to give up their guns. Two nine-pounders 
were brought close to them, and the torches ready to touch 
them off, in case of disobedience. The volunteers were 
also before them with loaded muskets, cocked and fingers 
on the trigger. At the command to pile their arms there 
seemed a slight hesitation, but they at once gave them up ; 
then partly rushed back to them, but finding themselves 
overpowered eventually yielded. This was the critical 
moment for the four hundred Sikhs to join them, had they 
been so disposed. Had they done so, not one of us could 
have escaped. The massacre would have been universal, 
and then the Allahabad fort, with its vast magazine and 
armory, would have been in the hands of the mutineers, 
and the whole of the northwestern provinces must have 
gone from under British rule. You may imagine our 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 109 

relief and joy when word was (quietly passed on to us, 
'The Sikhs are staunch.' 

Mr. Owen was not then aware, but subsequently he 
mentions that a train had been laid to the magazine, and 
an officer appointed to fire it, should the fort fall into the 
hands of the mutineers. 

" The Sepoys were all ready to start an outl)reak in the 
fort; for their muskets were loaded, and, contrary to 
orders, capped, and in this condition were taken from 
them." "It may be said that, under God, we owe our 
safety to Brasyer especially and to the volunteers. Most 
of these are railway people, and for securing them we owe 
all thanks to Mr. Hodgson, who sent out train after train, 
and brought them in from the distance of more than 
twenty miles. Their presence doul)tless did much to turn 
the scale in our favor. For I have no confidence in the 
Sikhs. At Benares they actually did fire upon the Eu- 
ropean soldiers, but instantly received a shower of grape, 
which cut up about eighty of them. They then turned 
and fought with the Europeans against the Sepoys." 

" Meanwhile Harvard and Hicks were at the brido-e 
with the guns. The only Europeans with them were two 
young ensigns just come out from England. An order 
was sent down for Harvard to bring the guns bacrk into 
the fort, under an escort of sixteen Sepoys. The order 
reached him about 8 o'clock. He sent out word to make 
ready to move oft" the guns. The Havildar returned and 
informed him that the Sepoys refused to obey. Hicks 
went out and tried to reason with them ; but instead of 
listening to reason, one man leveled his musket at him, 
which however was immediately knocked down by his 
neighbor. About this time, the Sepoys at the bridge seat 



110 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

up three rockets, as a si|c^al to those in the cantonments 
that they had commenced. They were seen from the fort, 
but were taken at the time for fire-works connected with 
some native weddinsf. The outbreak in cantonments in- 
stantly commenced, and the Sepoys at the bridge took the 
guns and went off in that direction. After they left. 
Harvard walked up to Alopee Bagh. where Alexander was 
stationed, with his irregular cavalry. Alexander immedi- 
atelv had his horse ready and gave one to Harvard, and 
got several men into the saddle as soon as possible. The 
deserters were overtaken, but in the attempt to rescue the 
guns Alexander was killed, his cavalry joined the mutin- 
eers, and Harvard finding himself alone, and very near the 
parade ground, fell back to the fort, which he reached in 
safety. The guns were taken to the parade ground, which 
they reached about 9 o'clock. Col. Simpson soon after 
leaving the Mess, heard an alarm at the parade ground, 
and rode over. As he passed each guard he was saluted 
with a shower of bullets. The other officers had gone over, 
and some of them had already been shot down. The 
Sepoys sounded an alarm on purpose to call out the 
officers, and shoot them all at once. The dead bodies of 
seven are still lying there. Col. Simpson rode on to the 
Treasury, where he was met by another shower of bullets, 
and as he passed the Mess house, the guard there gave him 
another volley. His horse was shot in many places, yet 
had sufficient strength left to bring his rider to the fort. 
The Colonel heard the bullets flying about his head. One 
hit the top of his cap, and a spent one his wrist, which was 
slightly lamed. His clothes were drenched with his horse's 
blood. Lieut. Currie had his horse shot from under him, 
but managed to escape. Capt. Grordon was concealed by 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. Ill 

some of the Sepoys until the firing had ceased, and then 
quietly taken hv them to a safe })laee, and requested to 
flee to the fort, as fast as possible. Out of seventeen 
officers who sat down to dinner at the Mess, on Saturday 
evening, only three are known to survive. It is possible, 
however, that others may yet turn up, for we have received 
some vague native rumors of Europeans hiding in the 
jungles in a most destitute state. 

"When the guns left the bridge, about twenty Sepoys 
took Hicks and the two young ensigns prisoners, and con- 
ducted them through the Daragunge up to the station, and 
left them at Birch's house, and went on to join the main 
party, who were robbing the Grovernment treasury at the 
collector's cutchery. Hicks and the ensigns then walked 
on to Staig's bungalow, took a horse and buggv, and in- 
stead of driving directly down the Fort road, where thev 
would doubtless have been intercepted, drove over towards 
the Ganges, left the buggy there, and went on till they 
reached the river, and plunged in. They swam down 
stream about a mile and a half, crossed to the Jhoosie side, 
made a detour of two or three miles through the country, 
having blackened themselves with mud. reached the side 
of the river opposite the fort, again j^lunged in, and came 
out by the fort, near the flagstaff. They then crept around, 
close under the fort till they reached the entrance of the 
main gate, where the volunteers, having disarmed the 
Sepoys, were with the Sikhs, keeping guard. I was con- 
versing with Hicks' sister in the balcony, when a call was 
made to her, ' Mrs. Hicks. Mrs. Hicks, somebody is 
knocking at your door.' She ran and found her brother 
and sister-in-law happy once more. Morning came and 
nothing was heard of poor Birch. During Sunday, we 
heard of his death. 



112 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

"Toward morning, the Colonel went out to the 100 
Sepoys of the 6th who had been disarmed, and told them 
that if they would go home, and not join the rebels, they 
should get pensions according to the time they had served 
the government, — and this to men who a few hours before 
had laid down their muskets loaded and capped, and whose 
comrades, in conspiracy with them, had butchered so many 
Europeans ! Who is to know whether they went home, 
like good boys, or not r'" 

" Morning came, and such a dismal morning I have 
never seen. I walked out to the main gate and there saw a 
dooly, in which were the remains of ])oor Alexander lying 
in the riding dress in which he was shot down. He was 
a very amiable young man. We all deeply lament his 
loss in the bloom of life. His body was laid at evening in 
the trenches." 

"The morning passed on, and until 11 o'clock, our 
bungalow appeared, from the top of the barracks, all safe. 
In reality, however, it was not so. From an early hour 
the Pathan of Durg{il)ad, from whom we rent the land, 
and to whom we have shown nothing but kindness, was 
there, with some hundred of low-caste Mohammedans, 
plundering all our property and burning our books. Of 
this I knew nothing at the time. Mr. Spry (the Church 
of England chaplain) appointed a short service at 12 
o'clock, in the verandah of the barracks. Just before 
it began, I ran up to the top of the barracks, and saw the 
smoke rising from the roof of our bungalow. It caused a 
bitter pang, but I was enabled with calmness to look uj) 
to G-od, and say * All is right. Thy will be done.' As we 
sat at worship in the verandah I could see the thick column 
of smoke rising from it. Mr. Spry read the 86th Psalm 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 113 

and the 9th chapter of Dauiel and prayed, and then gave 
the Bible to me. I selected the 46th Psalm and read it 
with a few cursory remarks, and prayed, and then Mr. 
Spry pronounced the i^enediction. The service was very 
short and attended by few. Most of the gentlemen were 
engaged in guarding the fort, and several ladies were over- 
whelmed with grief at the recent loss of their husbands. 

"The burning went on during the whole of Sunday, and 
no effort was made from the fort to arrest it." 

" Some sixty or seventy of the 1st Madras fusileers 
(Europeans) arrived from Benares, and were brought 
across by a steamer that haj^pened to be here. In the 
afternoon the rebels came close under the fort, and burned 
the bungalow at Arail. The incendiaries continued the 
whole night unchecked." 

"On Mou'lay (yesterday) we heard that the Moham- 
medans had planted their standard in the city, and that a 
Maulawi, at the gardens, had set up as the Lieutenant 
G-overnor of the king of Delhi, and offers two thousand 
five hundred Rupees for Mr. Court's head. The parade 
ground is occupied by Mohammedan troops, and it is at 
present impossible to recover the bodies of the seven 
officers who fell there. We hear distressing reports about 
our native Christians and Gropinath. Last night a com- 
pany of three women and seven children found their way 
into the fort, in a most desolate condition." "Mrs. 
Thomas, in trying to escape, was overtaken by a Moham- 
medan, who struck her in the neck with a sword. She 
fell with a faint cry. She then got up and walked a 
few steps, and sat down and asked for water. The Moham- 
medan ran up, saying, * you want water, do you ? ' and 
gave her another sword cut on the other side of her neck. 



114 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

which ended her Kfe. He also killed one of the children." 
Eeports of other like atrocities were brought in by the 
same parties. 

" We are almost starving here, hving on half rations. 
We can get nothing from the outside. The people of the 
town seem determined to starve us out, at least the 
Mohammedan portion, and have forbidden supplies of any 
kind to be sent in. The commissariat was very badly sup- 
plied, and we are all suffering. The heat, too, is excessive, 
and the filth allowed to accumulate, abominable. It will 
be wonderful if we have not a pestilence, should we stay 
here long, and things remain as they are. I have no 
quarters, but sleep in a tent at night. I have no furni- 
ture, except two chairs. I care little for my furniture; 
but my dear books are a sad loss. For I do not know how 
to get on without them. But Grod will provide." 

"June 10th (Wednesday). This morning Major Byres, 
Mr. Snow and several others came in from about twenty- 
four miles up the railway. I was at the Jumna water- 
gate on Monday, and took in a letter brought from Mr. 
Snow, telling us of their danger, and where they were. 
Mr. Court sent fourteen Sowars of the 25th Irregular 
Cavalry, who remained loyal, promising them 1400 Rupees 
if they brought the whole party in safe. Byres and his 
party were on a Tank, surrounded by thousands of natives, 
thirsting for their blood. Their bungalows were burned, 
and their property plundered before their eyes. The 
Sowars reached them yesterday afternoon. Just as the 
moment of deliverance had come, Mrs. Byres died of sun- 
stroke. They brought the body on to the Ganges, and 
were In the act of reading the burial service over it, when 
an alarm was given that the enemy was upon them. 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 115 

Hastily they covered it up, and escaped. They walked 
their horses all night, avoiding villages, coming through 
ravines, and keeping quite out of the way of the city in 
their approach to the fort." 

"June 11th. This morning Mrs. Boilard found her 
way into the fort. We had heard that she and her hus- 
band had been killed. Yesterday a message came that 
she was alive. Two Sowars were sent out for her. They 
got a third horse, dressed her up as a Sowar, placed her on 
the horse, and thus brought her in. On the way, they 
were asked who the third rider was. They said, they had 
with them one of the Maulawi's Sowars." She says, the 
rebels are enjoying a glorious revel at the station. Brandy 
is selling for a pice a bottle, champagne and beer for 
almost nothing. A butcher bought Mr. Court's carriage 
and pair for 30 Rs. Her husband was alive at 10 A. M. 
on Sunday. Since then she has not heard from him. 

"We have this afternoon been cheered by the arrival of 
Col. Neill, who behaved so gallantly in the outbreak at 
Benares, and to whom, under Grod, that station owes its 
continued safety." 

"June 12th. Col. ISTeili seems determined not to let 
the grass grow under his feet. Immediately after his 
arrival yesterday, he had preparation made for an attack 
on Daragunge. This morning at daybreak all was astir. 
Hitherto the mutineers have had it all their own way. 
Daragunge, a nest of Pryagwals, has been very trouble- 
some in stopping communication over the Granges. When 
this morning the fusileers were getting ready for their 
work. Col. Neill, to whom I had not been introduced, came 
and spoke kindly to me and said he was ' going to clear 
away that village, out there.' The troops were soon mov- 



116 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

iag out of the fort, sixty fusileers, three hundred Sikhs 
and thirty cavalry. They marched ofl: in the direction of 
Alopee Bagh, there to wait for the cannouadinsj to cease. 
The guns from two batteries opened about sunrise. I stood 
near the outer battery, and saw where ahnost every ball 
struck. The dust arose from Daragunge in clouds. When 
the firing stopped, the troops moved in, and we saw no 
more. They returned about ten o'clock, having reopened 
the communication across the Granges. 

''June 13th. Active skirmishing was now kept up in 
the neighborhood of the fort. " Col. Neill requested me 
this morning to speak to my colleagues about going with 
their families to Calcutta. All ladies and non-military 
men are to go as soon as possible. I told him that my 
family were not here, and that I would like somehow to 
stay, and after the restoration of order, try to gather up 
the fragments of our mission. He gave me leave to re- 
main, and said he would make arrangements for me, but 
requested that the others with their families prepare at 
once to remove. Troops are now on the way and all the 
space in the fort will very soon be required. Besides, this 
is not the place for ladies, especially if sickness should 
break out." Mr. Owen presents their discomforts as in- 
describable, scantiness of food and the poorness of its 
quality, the people outside, either by constraint or of their 
malignant purpose, withholding from them all supplies. 

"June 14th, Sabbath. This morning I attended wor- 
ship in the fort chai^el. Mr. Spry conducted the services 
in a very appropriate manner." " The Sabbath has not 
been spent as any of us desired ; but our confusion was 
unavoidable. I accompanied the Hays on board, this even- 
ing, truly sorry to part from them. They have been very 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 117 

kind to me. I love and esteem them the more I know 
them, and shall feel lonely without them ; but they, I 
believe, are in the way of duty in going. The flat, on 
which they are, is crowded with people, the steamer also. 
A number of armed volunteers protect both steamer and 
flat. Major Gary, an officer of the late "Illustrious 6th," 
goes as military commander of the whole. There are not 
cabins for one- third of the passengers. Screens and 
curtains are fitted up all over the decks, and the poor 
people jumbled in as thick as they can stand. The steamer 
is at the water-gate, and leaves early to-morrow morning." 

"June 15th. A steamer was this morning sent up the 
Jumna with fifty or sixty fusileers and a twelve pound 
howitzer, for the purpose of harassing the rebels in that 
quarter. 

" The fusileers upon landing found themselves face to 
face with thousands. But the Sikhs who went up by 
land soon joined them, and fought bravely. The Sikhs, 
ever since two or three of their number were killed by 
the Mohammedans, have been impatient to get revenge, 
and this morning they have had an opportunity. The 
fighting continued about four hours. We heard the 
firing very distinctly, and the dark columns of smoke, 
rising from the city, marked the course the troops were 
taking." " While they were at work, a battery from the 
fort was throwing shot and shell upon Pryagwalitolah. 
Col. Neill is much grieved at losing some of his brave men." 

" I omitted mentioning an interesting occurrence of 
yesterday — the arrival of thirty-seven fugitives from Oude, 
under Jjieut. G-rant, assistant commissioner. Most of them 
are from Sultanj^ore. About the time of the outbreak 
here, they heard alarming rumors, and started for Purtah- 



118 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

gurh, where Lieut. G-rant was stationed. There they heard 
that Allahabad had fallen, and that all the Euroj^eans had 
been massacred. Ajeet Singh, a powerful Zamindjir, pro- 
fessed to protect them several days, though in reality they 
were his prisoners. G-rant managed to get a letter for- 
warded to Court, who immediately sent out some native 
cavalry to escort them in. When Ajeet Singh heard that 
the Europeans at Allahabad were still safe in the fort, he 
at once became most loyal, and came in with the party 
himself, bringing with him a native escort of two thousand 
men. About 10 o'clock yesterday morning they arrived. 
I saw them come in just as I was retiring to my tent, and 
immediately went among them to render any assistance in 
my power. At Court's recjuest, I took a list of all, and 
assisted in getting them refreshment. They came in a 
most forlorn state. Nearly the whole party were sent on 
board the stepaner at once, without change of clothes — 
without anything, and pushed off to Calcutta. Lieutenant 
Grant remains, and shares my tent with me — indeed I 
have made it quite over to him, and have come into the 
quarters vacated by the Hays. 

"My fare is very simple, dail, rice, and chupatties. The 
rations drawn in my name I make over to the poor rail- 
way people, who are working hard as volunteer militia- 
men, and in reward, are almost starving. I now pay for 
the little food I am able to get with my own money. The 
heat is dreadful. I fear we shall have sickness here, in 
the rains. It is w^ell that the Colonel is pushing off the 
people to Calcutta, as fast as possible. For cholera, or any 
other epidemic, in this crowded fort would make fearful 
work." 

Since the fifth of June, ten days had now elapsed since 
all who survived of the European residents of Allahabad 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 119 

entered that stroughold. Many of the nou-iuilitarv part 
of them had been sent, under escort, to Calcutta. Of the 
American mission all who remained, besides Mr. Owen, 
were Mr. and Mrs, Munnis and their children. 

" June 16th. We have been most anxious respecting 
our native Christians, only two or three have found their 
way in the fort. Of the rest we have no definite intel- 
ligence. From the accounts received, we apprehended the 
most concerning Gro pinath and hi s family, wtiom I left in 
my house on Saturday, the 6th inst. Judge then of my 
agreeable surprise, this morning, on receiving from him a 
short note, written from our school-building, assuring me 
of the safety of all his family, and requesting me to get a 
party to go up and bring them, and Conductor Coleman 
and family, and Ensign Cheek of the 6th, down to the 
Fort. Gulzar, our Sais, brought me the note. I went to 
Mr. Court, who had just received a similar note, and was 
preparing to go. I could get no writing materials, and 
was obliged to send a verbal message, that we were coming 
at once. Court asked me to breakfast with him, and go 
up with the steamer that was to take the escort. We 
went on the steamer Jumna with sixty Fusileers and a 
twelve-pounder. As we approached the dear old place, 
the scene of desolation was most sad. The Fusileers and 
Mr. Court landed, but the officer in charge would not 
allow any of the others to go ashore. Dr. Irving was 
with us to take care of the wounded, but not a shot was 
fired. The party went up to the school building, but 
found no one there. They brought back a dismal account 
of the desolation which they had seen. When we returned 
to the fort, I found Gropinath and his family in my quar- 
ters. Grulzar had mistaken mv messasje, and told them to 



120 THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 

start, and that I would meet them on the way ! They, 
therefore, came alone to the Fort, and entered in a most 
forlorn state, with scarcely a rag of clothing on. They 
had before sent their clothes into the Fort, and therefore 
had a supply at hand. But I had scarcely anything for 
them to eat. They expected, on reaching the Fort, to find 
abundant supplies; but actually found us almost starving. 
I immediately secured for Ihem a passage to Calcutta, on 
board the flat that leaves to-morrow morning, in tow of 
the steamer Jumna, secured for them all the comforts I 
could on the passage, had their things taken on board, and 
accompanied them on board this evening. 

" Poor Gropinath has suffered much. For two or three 
days he and his family were wandering about in the greatest 
distress. He had been robbed of all the money about him, 
and was reduced to the condition of a beggar. At last he 
fell into the hands of the Maulawi, who had set up his gov- 
ernment at the G-ardens. He was kept there in the serai 
with his feet in the stocks four days and four nights. 
His poor wife was dragged by the hair of her head on the 
stones, and greatly bruised. They threatened several 
times to kill him ; and having found out that he was a 
Christian Padre were very bitter against him. But he 
stood firm, and witnessed a good confession. Young En- 
sign Cheek, who was wounded on the night of the out- 
break, and had been wandering about, hiding sometimes 
in the jungles, sometimes on trees, sometimes standing 
in the water, was suffering most excruciating pain, while 
with Gopinath in the serai. Not the least of his suffering 
was from thirst, and almost night and day, he was calling 
for water. In the midst of all his sufferings, he exhorted 
Gopinath to stand finn, saying ' Padre Sahib, hold on to 



THE MISSION IN THE SEPOY MUTINY. 121 

your faith. Don't give it up.' When the Mohammedans 
saw Gopinath trying to show kindness to Cheek, they put 
him at a distance, and tried to prevent all further inter- 
course between them. 

" Poor Cheek died this evening, from exposure and the 
long neglect of his wounds. Gropinath, this afternoon, 
remarked that he had a relative living at Bancoorah. It 
struck me that he might be a relative of Dr. Cheek, and I 
immediately went down to the hospital to see him, and see 
if he had any message to his friends. But he was past 
speaking. Mr. Spry had seen and prayed with him. 

"The heat here is so great that I cannot think of sleep- 
ing in the quarters before the rains set in. Hitherto, I 
have slept out of doors almost every night since I entered 
the Fort, and have not once undressed at night. Last 
night I slept on the ramparts with Hodgson's squad of 
volunteers, over the Main G-uard . It is the coolest place 
in the Fort." 



122 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 



CHAPTEE X. 

AN ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

Next morning, June 17th, Mr. Owen, after reflecting 
upon what was best for him to do, determined to walk up 
to the mission school building, find out how things stood, 
and try what sort of a residence he could find, there. Of 
the dangers to be encountered he seems to have taken little 
account, except that some native fugitives had come 
through safelv. 

" I walked up in an awfully hot sun, about eleven 
o'clock, and met with no molestation on the way. I might 
almost have fancied mvself walking: through a city of the 
dead. The school Imilding I found dreadfully broken, all 
the bars aud l)olts torn from the doors, the glass of the 
windows broken out, many of the doors taken away, books 
torn and scattered in every room and all about the com- 
pound, pieces of broken ajjparatus lying here and there, 
and everything as desolate as possible. But no Sepoys 
were to be seen. All was silent and desolate, without in- 
habitant. From the school I went to the church, which 
I found sadly broken, and comj^letely robbed. Scarcely a 
door remains in it. All the furniture — chairs, seats, 
lamps. Bibles, have been carried away. The bell is in the 
hands of the Pryagwals, who have taken it for one of 
their Hindu temi)les." 

His house on the Jumna he found in ruins. Its bare 
walls filled with rubbish. "I soon left it, quite heartsick. 
Several of the native Christians ran to me, and got others 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 123 

from their hiding places, among whom was Yunas. I re- 
quested him with his family, and all the native christians, 
to come into the school building, and promised to come 
there, and live there with them. The poor things seemed 
very glad to see me, and still more glad of what I pro- 
posed. We went into a garden in front of the mission 
compound, where I found pieces of our furniture scattered 
about, and Mrs. Pearson's piano all smashed. They told 
me I would find some of our things in an adjoining house 
belonging to Abdullah (a Mohammedan), one of Mr. 
Court's police officers. I walked in, and found no one 
there. I picked up two or three of mv towels, which I 
was glad to get, and a few other things. The native Chris- 
tians also found some articles belonging to them. Pres- 
ently we discovered a mound of fresh earth. I got dig- 
gers, and soon came to some boards ; which when I had 
taken up, I found a deep cellar, in which many things 
were stowed away. These were taken out, and the native 
Christians selected from them their own property. The 
rest I directed to be left there. The only article of Abdul- 
lah's, which I took away, was his splendid copy of the 
Koran, which I gave to Lieut, (or as he is called. Major) 
Brasyer, commander of the Sikhs, as a trophy. Brasyer 
has promised to give me a guard of Sikhs at the school 
building. He and Col, Neil and others were amused at 
my report of where I had been, and what I had done. 
Several in the fort had l)een asking after me during the 
day, not knowing where I had gone," 

The adventurous missionary had unawares made an 
important reconnoisance, and discovered that the Sepoys 
were withdrawn from all parts of the Jumna bank which 
he had visited : the verv direction which the military officers 



124 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

had it in view to explore. " I found them," he writes, 
" arranging for a grand expedition to morrow. Harvard 
has asked to accompany the party. We are to start at 
gun-fire to morrow morning." 

" June 18. I slept under a tree near my tent last 
night, and early this morning heard the preparation and 
then the marching of troops. 1 was soon on the steamer, 
and about sunrise we were off." The reconnoisance proved 
that the Sepoys had entirely withdrawn. When it was 
completed and the soldiers returned to the Fort, Mr. Owen 
remained with the native Christians, among the ruins. 

" It is pleasant to get among the native Christians 
again, but I do not feel so comfortable as I expected, some 
of them having become half Mohammedans. Yunas re- 
peated the Kalima, i. e., their confession of faith — There 
is no god but God, and Mohammed is his prophet ? So did 
Mrs. Fitz Gibbons and others. Not one of them, except 
Gopinath, has shown the spirit of a martyr. 

" Brasyer has kindly sent a guard of Sikhs this even- 
ing, consisting of two Havildars, two Naiks, and twenty 
men. I have got a supply of sugar to give them, to put 
into their water for making sherbet. I expect to go up on 
the roof, where they are stationed, and sleep in the midst 
of them. ' I will lay me down in peace and sleep : for 
thou. Lord, only makest me to dwell in safety.' 

" June 19. Rose early this morning, and began to set 
my house in order. In the midst of my labors, Mrs. Carr 
and her daughters rushed up from the fort in a panic, say- 
ing that the cholera had there broken out, and begging me 
to give them shelter. I sent the native Christians out into 
the long school house, and gave Mrs. Carr and her daugh- 
ters rooms in the east part of the college building, where 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK, 125 

they were soou joined bv Mr. Carr. Then came Mr. Rob- 
inson asking for shelter, which was given. Then Edward 
Hamilton and his clerk, Mr. Knight, came ninning up, 
saying the cholera in the fort was fearful, and that people 
were fleeing for their lives in all directions. I gave them 
shelter also. 

" During the day, I have picked up a few books in quite 
a ruined state. Yesterday, while marching with the troops 
through Durgabad, I saw stray leaves, here and there, of 
my Poole's Synopsis, Howe's works, Warburton, and other 
standard authors, that had been torn and scattered to the 
four winds by those Durgabad scoundrels. 

" I slept soundly last night on the top of the house 
quite alone among the Sikhs. Badhi, the Punkahwala, 
sat near me. My little Pussy, that used to sit so comfort- 
able under the Punkah on my study -table in the bungalow, 
had been a wanderer ever since the outbreak. Last night 
she came calling for me, and as soon as she found me out, 
ran up purring with the greatest satisfaction, followed me 
to the house-toj), and there spent the night with me. 

The cholera was raging at a fearful rate at the Fort, to 
day." ' 

Upon going into the fort, the first duty which was de- 
manded of him was to conduct the funeral of a victim of 
that terrible plague, the wife of an officer, while others 
were lying at the point of death. On the way to the 
burial ground they overtook Mr. Spry, the Church of Eng- 
land chaplain, outside the main gate, accompanying the 
coffin of another lady, who had just died of cholera, borne 
by European soldiers. They took that coffin also on the 
carriage. " Mr, Spry read the burial service for both at 
once. He then returned to the trenches and read the ser- 



126 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

vice over the bodies of eis^hteen European soldiers, who 
had all died of cholera during the day. They were buried 
without coffins, by twos and threes, in narrow graves just 
wide enough to admit them. Their poor comrades who 
were killed in action the other day, in Durgabad, were 
never buried. A party went out to recover the bodies, but 
found they had been cut to pieces by the Mohammedans, 
and treated with every manner of indignity." 

When he returned from the burial to the quarters, he 
found more deaths, running up the number by cholera to 
twenty-one on that day. He returned to his ruined school 
house in the evening. "I had to walk up quite alone and 
in the dark ; and could scarcely stand when I reached this 
place, which I found filled to overflowing. The Sikh G-uard 
is on the top, and I take my station with them, for the 
night. He that keepeth Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps; 
and unless he keep us, the watchmen watch in vain." 

" June 20. Had a good refreshing sleep last night, and 
feel well again to-day. The heat is intense, and we have 
— at least I have — neither tatties nor punkahs, and the 
glass windows are out, and the dust flying into my room 
in clouds. 

■' I saw and had a very pleasant talk with Mr. and Mrs. 
Spry in the Fort to-day. In these times it is truly refresh- 
ing to find those who take an interest in things of Zion. I 
miss the Hays very much in this respect. Allahabad never 
appeared more godless than it does now. While in the 
Fort I could scarcely walk about without hearing profane 
language from various directions. I never saw the Euro- 
pean character in a more unfavorable aspect. 

"June 21. Sabbath. We had service to-day in English, 
which I conducted. Afterwards I collected the native 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 127 

Christians, and had service with them in Hindustani. It 
was pleasant to see them assembled for worship once more, 
although I fear several of them, to save their lives, have 
professed the Mohammedan belief. This is very melan- 
choly, and casts a bitter alloy into the pleasure of meeting 
them again, 

" The native reports which have reached us from Fut- 
tehgurh are of the most discouraging character. We have 
painful fears regarding the safety of our dear friends there. 
No Cawnpore Dak for more than two weeks past. The 
Futtehpore station has been destroyed, and Mr. Robert 
Tucker killed. All the other residents have fled, and are 
supposed to be safe. 

" June 22. Walked this morning to the Press. The 
scene of desolation on the way is beyond all description. 
The Native Hospital, and Blind and Leper Asylums have 
been burned. The bones of the poor officers who fell on 
the Parade ground, have been gathered up and buried. ^ 
The desolation at the Press is dismal. All the bound ' '' 
books in the Depository, and all the unbound sheets in 
the binding room, and the store rooms adjoining, in value 
not to be counted in Rupees, have all been consumed. My 
commentary on the Psalms, printed as far as the 60th 
Psalm, has been burnt. I have a copy of the printed 
sheets, which 1 happened to take with me into the Fort. 
Much of my manuscript, which was in the Press, has also 
been destroyed, and of this I have no second copy. The 
manuscript of the Psalms, which I left in our bungalow, 
has also been destroyed beyond recovery. 

" June 27. During the past week, I have been attend- 
ing to the comfort and security of the native Christians. 
Joel has just come from Bareilly, from which place he and 



128 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

Emma, with a child in arms, walked the whole way. The 
outbreak there occurred on the 30th of May. Dr. Hay, 
Mr. Robinson, the Judge, and Dr. Hansbrow, have been 
killed, also Mr. Poynder the chaplain, and his wife, and 
many others. The Butlers are safe at Nynee Tal, but all 
their property has been plundered and their houses 
burned. All Rohilcund seems to have fallen. Bareilly 
appears to have been attacked by the mutinous regiment 
(18th) on Sabbath, the 30th of May, just as the people 
were leaving church. The peoj^le at Shahjehanpore are 
said to have been attacked in church, and most of them 
then and there killed. Joel came through Shahjehanpore, 
and saw it a scene of perfect desolation, no Europeans 
there. He also came through Lucknow and Cawnpore, 
where Sir Henry Lawrence and Sir Hugh Wheeler were 
holding out in their resj^ective entrenchments against the 
rebels. Sir Henry Lawrence seems safe at Lucknow ; but 
great apprehensions are entertained for the safety of Sir 
Hugh Wheeler's force at Cawnpore, closely hemmed in as 
they are by overwhelming odds, and with limited ammuni- 
tion and supplies. 

" Babu Hari walked to Lucknow, then to Cawnpore, 
and so back to Allahabad. I seut him, on his arrival, to 
Col. Neill, to give an account of what he had seen. "We 
have no up country Dah in these days, and have great 
difficulty in getting any authentic intelligence. A very 
bad report has reached us from Cawnpore, which the Babu 
confirms. Several days since, it is said, some forty boats, 
with 132 Europeans from Futtehgurh, were passing Cawn- 
pore, on their way to Allahabad. When they reached 
Bithoor, eight miles above Cawnpore, the Nana Sahib, a 
Mahratta, who has for several vears resided at Bithoor, 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 129 

fired upon them, and brought them all into Cawnpore, 
where he had them taken upon the parade "ground and 
slain. The party is said to have comprised all the non- 
military people of Futtehgurh, and if so, our missionary 
friends must have been among them. A few days before 
the outbreak here, I received a letter from Freeman 
informing me that all the missionaries in Delhi had been 
murdered. He wrote in a desponding style. Poor fellow, 
I still hope that he and the rest may be all right. For 
there is a counter flying report that the 10th Eegiment at 
Futtehgurh have not mutinied, and that that station is 
still safe. The missionary brethren there have for some 
time back been on the lookout, and have had native 
dresses for themselves and their families all ready to 
attempt their esjape. They were all living in one com- 
pound and had prayer meetings daily. 

" June 28. The quiet rest of the Sabbath has been 
very refreshing. I have not been able to get the European 
portion of the population together, but have had service 
quietly with the native Christians. 

" June 30. This afternoon 400 or 500 Europeans and 
700 to 800 Sikhs started for Cawnpore, amidst great 
cheering. The force is commanded by Major Eenaud of 
the first Madras Fusileers. 

" July 7. Another force, under Gen. Havelock, went 
off this afternoon." Immediately on the breaking out of 
the mutiny the forces were recalled from Persia, the war 
there being ended. Col. Havelock with two regiments, the 
78th and 64th, was delayed on the voyage by shipwreck 
but reached Calcutta on the 17th of June. He was at 
once raised to the rank of Brigadier G-eneral, and appointed 
to command the troops sent to relieve Sir Hugh Wheeler 



130 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

at Cawnpore and Sir Henry Lawrence at Lucknow. He 
arrived at Allahabad June 30. " We fear," writes Mr. 
Owen, " they are now too late to relieve Cawnpore. The 
force there is reported to have been all cut up, and several 
European ladies to be yet alive in the hands of the rebels." 

"July 14th. Gen. Havelock's force pushed on and 
joined the advance column, and last Sunday, at Futteh- 
pore, were attacked by the rebels, whom they defeated. 
There were three regiments of infantry and two of cavalry 
on the side of the enemy. 

"July 16th. Yesterday, Havelock again fought the 
rebels at PandooNuddy, about 15 miles this side of Cawn- 
pore. G-en. Neill has pushed on to join him with a few 
more troops. 

"July 18th. Day before yesterday Havelock entered 
Cawnpore, after hard fighting about four miles this side 
of that place. The women, who had been in the hands of 
the rebels, were all murdered, a few hours before the 
British forces entered. In one house the troops found a 
pool of fresh blood with arms, legs and heads, and traced 
the blood to a well near by, from which were taken the 
bodies of twenty-five women to whom they had belonged, 
all recently murdered. In the same house was found the 
journal of a lady kept until the day she was slain. 

"Edmonstone, formerly of Futtehpore, and recently 
officiating as judge at Banda, has just arrived here. The 
fugitives from Futtehpore went to Banda, where they were 
joined by most of the residents of that station ; and thence 
went to Nagode, farther south, thence to Mirzapore, whence 
the ladies, Mrs. Edmonstone and Mrs. Webster, went to 
Calcutta, and the gentlemen came here. At Humeerpore, 
Mr. Lovd and Mr. Donald Grant were blown from a gun. 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 131 

Bruce and Benjamin, at Banda, have been killed by the 
Mohammedans. At Jhansi all the Euroi^eans have been 
killed. Our prospects are now darker than ever. Sir 
Henry Lawrence, at Lucknow, was wounded on the 2nd 
and died on the 4th inst. A sad loss to India at this time. 

"July 19th. Baptized Old Maulawi Mohammed Taki, 
who was examined last Monday by the session. At the 
same time Yunas appeared and confessed his having re- 
peated the Kalima to save his wife, sister-in-law, and 
mother-in-law from being dishonored, and to-day he asked 
forgiveness of the church. 

"August 10th. Havelock started to go on to Lucknow, 
but has been obliged to fall back to Cawnpore. All Oude 
is in arms. Lucknow still holds out, but is in great 
danger. Should that place fall, the rebels may make a 
rush at Allahabad, and we may be besieged in the fort 
again. Great preparations are going forward in the fort 
to be ready for such an event. Delhi is still in the hands 
of the rebels, and the British troops have been there try- 
ing to retake it ever since the 8th of June. The station and 
cantonments of Agra are in the hands of the insurgents; 
but the Europeans are all safe in the fort. In all the 
Northwestern Provinces there is no such thing as order 
and government, excejDt in the few garrisons over which 
the British flag is still waving. 

"August 18th. No dak from Calcutta for several 
days past. The native troops at Dinapore have mutinied, 
and are now scattered over the province of Behar, and 
stopping the mail carts. Prospects are still very dark. 
In the Fort preparations are made for blowing up the 
whole place, in case it should be necessary to evacuate 
Allahabad, The Munnises have just left by steamer for 
Calcutta. 



132 ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 

"August 19t]i. I am here alone with Mr. Sandys. 
We have better news from Agra and Delhi. If Lucknow 
could be relieved, we might hope to see things soon begin- 
ning to mend. Calcutta dak and telegraph still closed. 
The Cawnpore dak and wire have alsD been closed again. 

" August 23. Yesterday a rumor reached us that 
Lucknow had fallen, and that the Cawnpore tragedy had 
been there re-enacted ; also that Lohunda was in the hands 
of the rebels, who were tearing up the railway. 

" To-day I received a letter from Scott, dated July 
25th, the first letter from any of our brethren up the 
country since May 14th. He has heard of the murder of 
our dear Futtehgurh brethren and sisters. The station of 
Agra has been burned and destroyed. 

" August 24th, Allahabad Fort. On Saturday I was 
warned not to remain at the Jumna alone. The Muharam 
has just commenced, and the Mohammedans have vowed 
destruction to all the " infidels " they can lay hold of. 
Walter Freehng kindly sent me up a note from the Fort 
that Lieut. Jenkins would gladly allow me to come into 
his quarters. I came down and received a kind welcome. 
I slept here on Saturday night and went up to the Jumna 
yesterday, and spent a quiet Sabbath with the native 
Christians. I returned last night, have now become the 
guest of the mess, to which Freeling, Jenkins, Christopher 
and other pleasant gentlemen belong, and receive from 
them all great kindness ; am making arrangements to have 
the native Christians brought within the outer entrench- 
ments." 

At this point Mr. Owen's journal letters come to an 
end. Having a^one to Calcutta to meet his wife, on her 
return from America, he was there detained for four 



ATTEMPT AT RETURN TO MISSION WORK. 133 

months by the unsettled state of the country. Allahabad 
had become the base of military operations for the northern 
provinces. Mission work was entirely swept from the 
field of all that group of stations comprehended under the 
name of Furrukhabad. The laborious and prayerful work 
of twenty years seemed to have been expended in vain ; 
all its fruits utterly extinguished. 



134 RETURNING TO WORK. 



CHAPTEE XI. 

RETURNING TO WORK. FROM CALCUTTA TO FURRUKHABAD 
IN THE TRAIL OF THE MUTINY, AND THROUGH 

LORD Clyde's army. 

On the 15tli of September, Mr. Owen reached Calcutta, 
where his wife landed on the 21st ; he did not leave that 
* city on his return to the north until January next. Mean- 
I (^ while occurred Havelock's final march on Lucknow, and 

reinforcement of the European garrison there. Lord Clyde's 
victories at Cawnpore and Alumbagh, and relief of the 
Residency of Lucknow, the recapture of Delhi by Oeneral 
Wilson, and protection of Agra by Colonel G-reathed. 
But Lucknow, although humiliated, and her prey wrested 
out of her grasp, was still, at the beginning of 1858, 
unsubdued ; and the mutineers, who now made that city 
their headc|uarters, remained a numerous, well organized, 
and well equipped army. Oude and the adjoining country 
across the Ganges were still occupied by conflicting forces. 
Missionary oj^erations were still impracticable in the 
region of Allahabad. 

Mr. Owen, at Calcutta, remained imimtiently listening 
to every report of the movements which seemed to be 
opening the way for return to his work. On the 24th of 
Nov. he writes, " We spent Saturday wiih Dr. and Mrs. 
Duff, and went with him again over his noble institution. 
Last night we were in company of upwards of thirty 
Christian friends, where we saw all the Lacroix party. We 
see them frequently, and have much delighful intercourse 



RETURNING TO WORK. 135 

with them." " I have much to be thankful for, life spared, 
wife and sou spared, the sympathy and affection of dear 
friends, a hope in the Blessed Redeemer." 

On the 19th of January, 1858, Mr. Owen left Calcutta 
alone, for the field of his mission. The journey was one 
of exploration amon^ ruins, to find out where to recom- 
mence, and what remained that could be useful. From 
Calcutta the railway then extended as far north as Ranee- 
gunge. At that station he was detained most of two days, 
all the garis (carriages) being engaged for the transporta- 
tion of troops. Part of that time he spent in visiting the 
camp and hospital, in talking with the men on the interest 
of their souls, and reading the Scriptures to them. In 
the hosj^ital, " When I suggested having worship with 
them, they immediately got me a desk and a Bible, and 
were all very attentive, some of them following me in 
their Bibles while I read." 

On leaving Raneegunge, he went in company with cer- 
tain military officers on their way to Lucknow. "A gen- 
tleman accustomed to the use of fire arms kindly loaded 
my revolver for me, and put the caps on. I heard the 
driver giving notice, during the night, to some»natives, that 
I was armed. Our carriages continued near each other all 
night. We passed two or three detachments of troops by 
the way, and hundreds of carts laden with supplies. My 
carriage was a comfortable one; but the night was very 
cold. This morning a cold north wind was blowing down 
from the hills. I wrapped myself up in my cloak, and 
enjoyed it greatly. The scenery in all directions is beauti- 
ful and the mountain air bracing." 

It was through a constant stream of military, coming 
and going, that Mr. Owen had to make his way. Upon 



136 RETURNING TO WORK. 

his arrival at the station of Nimeaghant, the officer in 
command there, whose duty it was to receive troops on 
their way, feed them, and pass them on, had just received 
orders to have rations for two hundred men a day, for 
several days to C(mie, whi(;h seemed to confirm the rumors 
of hard fighting up the country. ''They say all is safe as 
far as Sasseram, and if there is any danger beyond, the 
officer commanding there will not allow us to go on, until 
the road is quite clear. If all goes well, we reach Sasseram 
the day after to-morrow." At various places he found the 
road blocked up with bullock carts, conveying troops to 
the north, not a promising symptom for the conditions of 
m.issionary work. 

Next day he met a rumor that Amar Singh was in 
force at Roletas Gurh, and that the British troops were to 
attack him from Sasseram in a few days. " The people are 
quietly pursuing their occupations." 

On arrival at Sasseram, he found the report correct as 
to the intended attack upon Roletas Gurh. But as that 
was not to be made for a few days, and no impediment 
was put in his way, he determined to push forward. At 
Sasseram he spent the Sabbath, and had religious services 
with some of the soldiers. He mentions with affection 
some officers in whose company he had travelled so far, 
'and with whom he had worship on Sabbath evening. 
" After we rose, (from kneeling in prayer) they all thanked 
me. Poor dear fellows, they seem very friendly. They 
all seem to have been well brought up in the Church of 
England." 

At Sasseram Mr. Owen parted from his military friends, 
who had to wait there for their men to come up. At 
Benares he found some of his old missionary friends ; but 



RETURNING TO WORK. 



137 



their kindness failed to induce him to stay more than part 

of three days with them. Through crowds of Karanchies 

laden with European soldiers, and accepting conveyance 

with a military friend, Capt. Bunbury, in a government 

van, he pushed on his way, and reached Allahabad the next 

morning. Along the road between Benares and Allahabad ^/ 

he remarks that he had never seen the country in a better 

state of cultivation. "The poor cultivators seem to have iA/-^i.-o^ 

taken little in teres^ in the rebellion, either against or for 

us." "I saw the outlines of the old fort by moonlight. 

Many hearts feel grateful for the protection it afforded 

last June. The esplanade in front is covered with tents. 

As we came up the road leading from the fort to the 

station, I saw the plain on our left covered with a sea of 

canvas, the encampment of the Queen's Second Dragoon 

Guards." 

"The part near the station is covered with a park of 
artillery, and in the part where the Sepoy lines were, 
European barracks are in course of rapid preparation." 
" We entered the Mission Press compound shortly before 
one o'clock this morning." "Babu John Hari, and Mirza, 
and other native Christians were soon up, and came to 
assist in taking my things off the van. I was cold, and 
felt too much excited to sleep. I was early up, and walked 
with Kennedy to the fort to find Dr. Gruise." His tent 
was on the esplanade. " One of his servants took us to 
the scene of his laborious duties." " We had then a long 
walk through the hospitals, in which are 430 sick and 
wounded. It would be impossible to speak too highly in 
praise of the perfect neatness and cleanliness, in which we 
saw the poor fellows, in their comfortable wards and beds. 
Every thing is done for them that human skill and kind- 



138 RETURNING TO WORK. 

ness can do." "Col. Greathed, the hero of Delhi and Agra, 
is now here, on his way to Calcutta, a very soldierly look- 
ing man." 

Entertained by Mr. Court, the magistrate, as his guest 
in the mess for the few days which intervened before he 
could proceed to Futtehgurh where he expected to meet 
some brethren from the northern stations, Mr. Owen was 
in the way of hearing, from both civilians and military 
men, the news of what was going on in both departments 
of the public service, and being deeply interested in having 
the native Christians recognized as worthy of government 
confidence, consistently defended their caus3, in that com- 
pany. He collected many examples of their loyalty, self- 
reliance and enterprise, when trusted as soldiers, or other- 
wise. Some of them, to save their lives and those of iheir 
families, had sul^mitted to repeat the Mohammedan creed; 
and now came to him lamenting their lapse, and begging to 
be taken back into the church. Many of them, through 
all their trials had clung to the ruins of the Mission prem- 
ises, and that neighborhood. Babu John Hari had mended 
one of the broken presses, and commenced printing jobs. 
For that purpose he had obtained a government license. 

Allahabad was at that time in the midst of a revolu- 
tion, going to make it for a time the seat of the general 
government, and the centre of military operations. Changes 
were taking place in every direction, and every thing unset- 
tled, mission work was still impracticable. Hindu Melas 
were also susy^encled. " The Pryagwals have nearly all 
left Pryagwalitolah. Several of them live in Daragunge ; 
and, as the people are prohibited from going to the Tribeni 
in large companies, the Pryagwals go down themselves, 
one or two at a time, and luring a lotah of water from the 



RETURNING TO WORK. 139 

sacred point of the junction, mix it with other Ganges 
water in Daragunge, and there bathe the few people from 
the city, who persist in patronizing them." 

" The ungodly lives of Europeans have been no incon- 
siderable hindrance to the progress of the Grospel in 
India." " Chester was highly indignant at a man called 
De Cruz, for turning Mussulman. De Cruz was asked if 
he had become a Mussulman. He very coolly replied, ' Yes, 
as a temporary measure.' Chester was for hanging him." 

Feb. 2nd, "I have received a letter from Scott at 
Landour, where he was writing from the midst of a snow 
storm. He intended going down to Agra, in a week or 
two, and wishes me to try and come there. Fullerton is 
at Futtehgurh, a^id I have written to him to stand fast 
there, until I come. I hope to start in a day or two. To 
get as far as Cawnpore is easy enough by Government 
dak ; but beyond there is no dak, but the mail cart ; and 
that passes twenty miles from Futtehgurh. However, I 
hope to get on somehow." 

Feb. 6th, Camp Futtehpore. " On Saturday morning 
I got an order from the Brigadier for a government dah at 
my own expense. He gave me also a pass for the train to 
Khaga, and my passage to that place cost me nothing. 
The train was a very long one, bringing us commissariat 
stores, and munitions of war." The commander-in-chief 
was expected to meet him by the way ; but at Khaga 
heard that he was at Cawnpore, crossing his troops into 
Oude. 

While the engineer was taking in water, I conversed 
with some of the Sepoys who mutinied at Nowgong. 
About 80 of them remained staunch, and protected their 
Major. The Government have committed to their charge 



140 RETURNING TO WORK. 

the railway works at Bawari. I asked them why their 
comrades mutinied. They professed entire ignorance of 
the cause, simply saying "God made them bad." I asked 
them whether they would shoot any of their old comrades, 
if they should meet them. " Yes, certainly," said they, 
for if we did not, they would shoot us." 

The country through which we passed is under cultiva- 
tion, and the crops seem as usual. 

From Khaga, I came on to Futtehpore, 22 miles, by 
government van, paying for myself. The dak bungalows 
between Allahabad and Futtehpore, were all burned during 
the rebellion, except the one at Lohunda ; the telegraph 
wires all destroyed, and nearly all the telegraph posts. 
The wire is now supported by temporary posts of bamboo, 
and whatever else material came first to hand. At Belinda, 
four miles from Futtehpore, where Havelock was first 
attacked, a id whence he proceeded and fought the battle 
of Futtt'bp >re, Sunday morning, July 12, the first advan- 
tage gained by us, after the dreadful events of June, we 
stopped to change horses. I asked the people of the vil- 
lage about it. They saw it, and said they were all loyal, 
and furnished our troops with supplies. 

I drove to the Camp, not knowing where I was to find 
shelter, but inquiring for Mr. Marcy's tent. The driver 
brought me into the cutchery compound to the military 
camp, and I was met immediately, by a pleasant gentle- 
man on horseback, Major Babington, of the 17th Madras 
Native Infantry, with a kind "How do you do, sir? Are 
you going up the country ? You'll stop and give us service 
to-morrow ? But unfortunately we are going out on a 
tour, to be gone several days. But there's my tent, occupy 
it as long as you like. We dine at six, this evening, and 



RETURNING TO WORK. 141 

shall be happy to have you with us. Take your things to 
my tent, and I'll be back in a few minutes. I deposited 
my things in my new home, and drove off on the van to 
look at the mission premises." It was in G-opeenath's con- 
gregation. The property had been seriously injured, and 
some of the houses burned, but some of them were still in- 
habited by native Christians. And Mr. Owen thought that 
as *' the walls were standing, if covered over before the 
next rains, they would with some repairing, be as good as 
ever." 

Mr. Owen then visited the civil camp, and meeting 
some acquaintances there, dismissed his van, and in their 
company took a walk among the ruins in other parts of the 
city, describing the desolation, which the mutiny and its 
punishment had left behind them. Dining with Major 
Babington that evening, he was introduced to the principal 
officers of the station, by whom he was treated with the 
kindest courtesy. Next day he preached in the camp. 
The conclusion of his observations was that Futtehj^ore 
was quite safe, and that if Gropeenath were there he might 
recommence missionary operations on a small scale. His 
next letter was from " Cawjipore, Feb. 9th. Here I am, 
in the station, which of all that have suffered by the rebel- 
lion, has been the scene of most suffering, cruelty and 
slaughter. I left the Major's tent at half-jmst eight. I 
passed the mission premises, and left money, and an order 
with Henry to have the four catechists' houses repaired 
immediately. The natives should see as soon as possible 
that we have not been driven from the ground. I think 
Futtehpore will now remain safe. The only fear, so far as 
I can see, is that the rebels, when driven from Lucknow 
and Oude, may make a dash that way. But the authorities 



142 



RETURNING TO WORK. 



must protect the railway, and other property there, and 
not allow the enemy again to take possession. The com- 
mander-in-chief went over to Allahabad on Sunday morn- 
ing, and passed through Futtehpore on his return to Cawn- 
pore early this morning, having left Allahabad on Monday 
night. The horses had been well used up, and consequently 
I came on slowly, and reached Cawnpore just before sun- 
set. The road is well kept open, and quite safe. I came 
comfortably in one of the government vans. The country 
is under cultivation, and the crops appear as usual ; but 
the road to-day bore more evident marks of the rebellion 
than any part I have seen, except at the stations of Allah- 
abad and Futtehpore. Most of the villages had been plun- 
dered and burnt, and the people are just beginning to settle 
in them again. The telegraph posts had nearly all been 
cut, and temporary posts have been put up. The bare 
walls of the two dah bungalows, at KuUianpoor and Sir- 
soul are standing. KuUianpoor, the second dah bungalow 
from Cawnpore, is the place to which ihe revolted regi- 
ments had gone, on their way to Allahabad, when the 
Nana went out and brought them back to Cawnpore. At 
Aung I saw the entrenchment, or a part of it, from behind 
which the rebels attempted to oppose Havelock's progress, 
after the battle of Futtehpore. They were driven from 
their position, and fell back three miles to the Pandoo 
Nuddi. There they began to break down the Pakha 
bridge; but had not time to do much, before Havelock 
was again upon them. They had another entrenchment 
on this side of the bridge, a portion of which is still there. 
After two hours fighting, the rebels retreated towards 
Cawnpore and made a stand, on the 15th of July, at the 
place where the road into cantonment forks from the trunk 



RETURNING TO WORK. 143 

road. After Havelock had defeated them at this last 
place, the Nana came into Cawnpore, and caused every 
European here, about 150, to be butchered that night. 
Havelock came in the next mornins^, and found the 
slaughter house and the well. The scene, as we approached 
and entered the station, was sad — sad beyond description. 
The ruin is more extensive and complete, and the desola- 
tion much more visible and striking than in Allahabad. 

" I am in Nir Muhammed's Hotel, rather a rough affair, 
but a great convenience just now. One is glad to get any 
shelter, in such a time as this. The Commander-in-chief's 
camp is here, and troops are crossing on two or three 
bridges, day and night. The whole place is full of bustle 
and dust, swarming with red coats. In the compound of 
the Hotel are encamped the ladies, who have just come 
down with a convoy from Agra. 

'* One's heart sickens in going over this vast scene of des- 
olation and ruins, with the recollection of what Cawnpore 
was only a few Dionths since, and that all the recent 
occupants of these walls are now in eternity, sent there, 
alas! sadly unprepared. Cawnpore is like a city of the 
dead. I can scarcely recognize places with which I was 
(mce acquainted. After surveying the new fort, we drove 
to the chief's camp, and called on Major Norman, the son 
of my old friend, and fellow-passenger round the Cape. 
I expect to leave early on Friday morning, by G-overnment 
van, for Agra. I have just ^'eceived a letter from Fuller- 
ton, who has returned to that city; also one from Butler, 
from Meerut. 

" This evening I drove out to find some of the places. 
which have obtained such a sad notoriety. No native 
that I met would tell me the way to the House of Murder. 



144 RETURNING TO WORK. 

Thev all feign entire ignorance of its locality, and of what 
occurred there. At last I got a drummer bov of the 34th 
to come with me and show me the way. He is a bright 
little fellow, and told me of their recent hard fighting with 
the Gwalior rebels, and pointed out the places where some 
of the severest struggles took place. The slaughter house 
has been blown up and the well in which the bodies were 
thrown, has been filled. A very beautiful monument 
"To the Memory of the Women and Children of H. M. 
32nd, who were massacred near this place," has been 
erected by twenty men of that regiment, who passed 
through Cawnpore in November. The well into which 
Miss Wheeler threw herself, a few feet distant, has also 
been covered over. The trees, against which the Sepoys 
dashed the children, have been cut down. They were just 
back of the house, between that and the well. The bark 
which was stained with the children's blood, has been 
taken off ; but the trees are lying there still. 

The slaughter house is in ruins, and one cannot see 
what it was, but the entrenchment, if such it may be 
called, is just as it was when Wheeler capitulated. There 
is no entrenchment, only a mud bank, scarcely as high as 
one's knee, a few rods in front of the buildings they 
occupied; in some places no bank at all. It is perfectly 
astonishing that they were held so long, by so weak a force, 
against such overwhelming odds, and proves, more than 
anything I have yet seen, the rebels' want of skill and 
courage. In the defence were only 150 of the Queen's 
32nd, 15 of the Madras Fusileers, and a few other fighting 
men, and 6 small guns. The place is very extensive, and, 
even if really well entrenched, would require at least 500 
men to defend the works. It was surrounded by at least 



RETURNING TO WORK. 145 

20,000 of the Nana's forces, who had not less than 50 or 
60 guns battering it day and night from every direction. 
I never saw buildings so thoroughly battered and riddled. 
No wonder the poor people lost all heai-t, balls constantly 
cominsf in upon them, bricks falling and walls tumbling 
about their ears, no quiet day or night, many being killed 
daily, others dying of wounds, and sunstroke. This is 
the most dismal of all the dismal scenes of desolation 
that I have yet seen caused by this rebellion. It makes 
one's heart sick to walk about and think of the grief 
and suffering these battered and riddled walls have wit- 
nessed. Some who died are buried in a small garden, 
most however were thrown into a well near one of the 
buildings. On some of the walls are still marks of blood. 
The place is still marked where young Wheeler, the gen- 
eral's son and aide-de-camp, was killed by a round shot, 
throwing his blood all over the wall.^ How our people 
managed to hold out those 20 days is matter of astonish- 
ment. Ec[ually astonishing is the fatuity evinced in 
entrenching there. They were exposed on every side, 
without any cover from the enemy's cannon and musketry, 
and in every direction the walls are battered and broken 
in, and heaps of brick lying all about. 

"Lieut. Thompson, one of the only three survivors of 
Cawnpore, whom I met this evening, says the place is just 
as they left it. Thompson is a particularly pleasant man, 
and gives a most interesting account of what he has seen 
and suffered. He was wounded the other day at Calpee, 
and can scarcely walk. He and Delafosse and private 
Murphy are the only survivors of all who went into the 



1) Another account is that young Wheelei- was fatally wounded 
in a sally on the 20th, and died next day. 



146 RETURNING TO WORK. 

entrenchments here on the 6th of last June. Groverument 
ought to pension and title them, instead of exposing them 
to further danger. Murphy is fighting at Lucknow, and 
Thompson will be at it again as soon as his wound heals. 
Delafosse, they say, is half mad. 

" Wheeler capitulated with the Nana on the 26th of 
June, and the ladies began to move to the boats about 6 
o'clock on the morning of the 27th, and by eight A. M., 
all were on board. They were not without suspicions of 
foul play, but had no idea that it could be so bad. I have 
heard from native reports that when the ladies came out 
of the entrenchments to go on board, they could scarcely 
be distinguished from native women, they were so sun- 
burnt and covered with dust and smoke. Willock told me 
this evening that our European soldiers, when going into 
action, to urge each other on, often call out ' Cawnpore, 
Cawnpore,' and the Sikhs cry ' Cawnpore h/i badla — 
Cawnpore ha badla ! ' — ' Revenge of Cawnpore ! ' 

"Feb. 11. Breakfasted this morning with G-regson, and 
afterwards drove with him over the ground of the late 
disasters under Wyndham ; also to the church and grave- 
yard. The roof of the church was burnt, and fell in; but 
an awning of Sirka grass has been run over it, a shelter 
from the sun, but not for rain, rude seats placed inside, 
something like a pulpit set up, and service is conducted 
there on Sundays. The walls are all blackened with smoke. 
They seem good, and the tower is still standing. The 
place is sadly dilapidated. The monuments in the burial 
ground are much broken." " On returning I found here 
Debi Din, one of the native Christians, who came with the 
missionaries from Futtehgurh, and was with them until 
they were seized at Nawabgunge. His account is most 



RETURNING TO WORK, 147 

touching. I have determined to remain here a day or two 
longer, and take down his statement, before going on to 
Agra. His account agrees, for the most part, with what 
I have heard, but adds further particulars. 

" A large number (132) of Europeans left Futtehgurh, 
on the 4th of June, in boats, to make their escape down 
the river, either to Cawnpore, or Allahabad. Our mission- 
ary friends. Freeman and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, 
Campbell, his wife and two children, and Mr. and Mrs. 
M'Mullin, were with others on one of the boats. They 
proceeded with very great difficulty, in some places giving 
the natives money to be allowed to proceed, and in others, 
fighting their way through crowds of rebels." 

"They were not taken at Bithoor, as we had heard, but 
five miles further down, and five miles above Cawnpore, 
at Nawabgunge. There they saw with spy-glasses, guns 
placed on the banks to oppose their progress down the 
river, and wrote a letter to G-eneral Wheeler, asking for 
assistance to get up to his entrenchments, and offered a 
man, who afterward proved to be a spy of the ISTana's, 
200 Rs., to take the letter up to Wheeler. They heard the 
booming of cannon, and knew that all Caw d pore was up 
and that the Europeans were somewhere in one place 
defending themselves. There they remained, near a small 
island in the river, about two days, unable to get on down 
the river, and unable to get assistance from the English. 
At last, hundreds of people, Budmashes, Sepoys, Sowars, 
cultivators from the villages, men, women and children, 
surrounded them. They fought as long as they could, 
the ladies loading and the gentlemen firing the muskets. 
A round shot broke a hole in the large boat, on which 
they had all been obliged to get. The boat began to sink. 



148 RETURNING TO WORK. 

and all got out on the small island, the ladies holding their 
children in their arms, under the scorching sun of June, 
the hots blowing in full blast. All knelt down, and Mr. 
Campbell led them in prayer. Then they directed the 
servants on the boat to break all the weapons and throw 
them into the river. They were soon beset with mul- 
titudes, who took away their watches, all they had in their 
pockets, their hats, shoes, stockings, coats, every thing ex- 
cept a slight covering from the waist downward. Then all 
were put into a large boat and brought to the Cawupore 
side. Mr. Campbell requested the three native Christians, 
who were with them, to escape and get back to Futteh- 
gurh, and warn all there to flee, and try to save them- 
selves, 

" Debi Din saw the whole party brought to the shore, 
the ladies brought off first, and made to sit on the ground ; 
then the gentlemen were brought off and tied with a long 
rope arm to arm. The Sowars rode near the ladies while 
thus sitting on the ground. The ladies joined their hands 
and in an attitude of entreaty, begged for their lives. The 
Sowars replied to them in abiisive and obscene language, 
shook their swords over them, and told them not one of 
them should live. When the gentlemen had all been tied 
together in a ring, the ladies were placed within the ring, 
and thus, they were all marched off. Mr. Campbell gave 
a farewell salam to the native Christians ; and the latter 
gazed after the company, till a bazar, through which they 
were taken, covered them from view. 

"A native here says that he saw a number of European 
ladies and gentlemen, with their children, being killed by 
Sepoys and Sowars, one morning, about ten o'clock, on the 
plain in front of the Savadah Kothi, the house formerly 



RETURNING TO WORK. 149 

occupied by Perkins. The Sepoys shot them with their 
muskets, and the Sowars with their pistols and then cut 
them to pieces with their swords. The man can give me 
no dates. ^ I hope yet to learn further particulars." 

Next morning in company with a friend, Mr. Owen 
walked up to the Savadah Kothi, and recognized the main 
features of the place remaining as he had formerly known 
them. There also he found a man who told him that "he 
saw a company of Europeans, gentlemen, ladies, and 
children, being led bound from the direction of the 
Savadah Kothi, to the plain below, between that place and 
Wheeler's entrenchment, and there, by order of the Nana, 
who was present on horseback, shot and afterwards cut to 
pieces with swords. 

" We have no doubt that all is well with them, that they 
have long since been at rest. The struggle was doubtless 
sharp, yet short. Christ was near, who has said ' I will 
never leave you nor forsake you." " We have been busy 
all day taking the statements of some native Christians 
from Futtehgurh." 

On the following day, Mr. Owen visited the scene of 
the fearful treachery to Wheeler and his .party after their 
capitulation. " The road from the entrenchment down to 
the river is pretty direct. Some walked, others went on 
carts and in doolies, and some of the sick and wounded 
were taken on elephants, Wheeler walked down support- 
ing his two daughters on his arms, accompanied by Thomp- 
son, At the ghat is a large Hindu temple. Below the 
temple, on the shore, is a line of native houses. On a rising 
ground beyond these houses, were planted three guns. Near 



1) It was subsequently ascertained to have occuiTed on the 13th 
of June. The party had been taken oif the island on the 12th. 



150 RETURNING TO WORK. 

a bungalow still higher up the river, was another gun, and 
two more were on the Oude side. In the river is a sand 
bank, which at that time was covered with about a foot of 
water. The boats, about 40, were therefore confined in a 
narrow creek, near the shore. Just as they were pushing 
off, the guns opened upon them with grape, killing many 
in the boats near. Some of the boats went on. These 
were hit by round shot and sunk. The one in which 
Thompson was, took fire, and he swam to another ahead. 
Another near this was sinking, and all the passengers, in- 
cluding about 60 women and children, were taken on 
board. This boat and another managed to get beyond 
the reach of the guns, and went on down several miles. 
The rebels pursued, firing upon them with muskets, from 
the bank. At last a party of 14 went ashore, to clear them 
out. They succeeded, but lost just half their number. 
The remaining seven, finding themselves closely pressed, 
made a stand in a Hindu temple. They saw nothing 
more of the boats they had left. Finding themselves cut 
off from returning to the boats, they started to swim down 
stream. They swam several miles ; but three of the seven 
were either drowned or killed by the enemy, who followed 
them, firing upon them. When no longer pursued, and quite 
exhausted, they saw some natives on shore beckoning to 
them. They stopped, and had a parley with them, standing 
in the water, at a distance. They distrusted, but had no 
alternative, and so gave themselves up. The natives were 
kind and faithful, and through their assistance, Lieutenants 
Thompson and Delafosse, and privates Muq^hy and Sul- 
livan, the only survivors of the party, who embarked at 
the Gola Ghat, were taken into Havelock's camj), near 
Futtehpore. Sullivan has since died, Murphy is said to 



RETURNING TO WORK. 161 

have been killed at Alumbagh, and Delafosse has partly 
gone mad. Thompson is here, wounded from a ball he 
got the other day at Calpee." 

" Feb. 14, Sabbath. To-day at 11 A. M., I had worship 
in Hindustani here in the tent, with four of our Futteh- 
gurh Christians, and a few others." "I long to get settled 
at my work again. 1 would not exchange my calling as 
a missionary for all the honors and emoluments in the 
gift of either my native land, or G-reat Britain. And yet, 
if I look at what I have done, I have reason for nothing 
but the deepest humiliation. For I can see nothing of 
my work remaining. We must however remember that 
the progress of G-od's Kingdom does not depend on our 
individual efforts any further than his good pleasure 
makes it so. He may own and bless our faith and labor, 
and make them to advance His glory, in a way of which 
we have no conception. Through the united faith and 
prayer and effort of his church, he will manifest his glory 
among the heathen, and extend and establish his kingdom 
throughout the whole earth. The ruins of Allahabad, and 
Futtehpore, and Cawnpore, and Futtehgurh, and Agra, 
and Delhi, if not all in a material, yet in a spiritual sense, 
shall be built up, and Christ's kingdom appear great and 
glorious in all these places. It is comforting to know that 
all these things are in the hand of our God, and that 
though we die, Jesus Christ remains the same yesterday, 
to-day and forever." 

"The ploughmen, artisans, and shopkeepers are, in 
general, passively and negatively loyal. Most of these are 
Hindus. Passing through the country, you would scarcely, 
without previous knowledge of the fact, suppose the 
people in a state of rebellion. To a certain extent they 



152 RETURNING TO WORK. 

are not, and to a certain extent they are. The revolt is 
something more than a military mutiny; and yet, with 
the exception of Oude, Eohilkund and Bundelkund, can 
scarcely be called a national rebellion. The ignorant, 
unstable, selfish people are always ready for anything 
that promises a greater j^resent good, having little fore- 
sight as to the future. The Bible, and the Bible alone, 
can raise them from their ignorance, superstition and degra- 
dation, and make real men of them. When they become 
Christians, then we may look for something good, amiable 
and noble in them. Some of the natives, and Sepoys too, 
have stuck to us nobly. This is a fact not to be forgotten. 
When the gospel works upon their hearts, we shall have a 
good, amiable, if not a great people." 

" Is it not remarkable that the Punjab, where Sir John 
Lawrence and Mr. Montgomery have, all through the 
mutiny, openly favored Missionary operations, has remained 
so quiet, and in fact, been the means of saving India ? 
Major Edwards, at Peshawar, has from the beginning of 
his rule in that place, favored missionary work." " How 
remarkably has Grod fulfilled his word, as regards the 
rulers of the Punjab." ' Them that honor me I will honor.' 

" How different things are in the Regulation Provinces, 
where the old traditional and conciliation policy is the 
order of the day ! 

"Mr. Grant, our present Lieut. -Grovernor, seldom, if 
ever, goes to church, and clings to the anti-Christian policy. 
The missionaries in Benares raised a corps of about 400 
native Christians for Grovernment service. Mr. Grant 
declined taking them, lest the Hindus and Mohammedans 
should take offence ! The missionaries in Krishnaghur, 
in Bengal, not long since, wished the native Christians to 



RETURNING TO WORK. 153 

enlist in Grovernment service, and the native Christians 
themselves desired to do so ; but Lord Canning and Mr. 
Halliday refused to accept them ! All that we want is 
that the native Christians have fair plaij, not be favored 
because they are Christians, nor be rejected on that account; 
but if they are otherwise qualified, that they be, equally 
with Mohammedans and Hindus, eligible to Grovemment 
service. The native Christian, whom I sent with Walter 
Freeling, followed his master on the 25th of September, 
through that terrible firing into the Residency, and I hear 
has done very well. Walter wrote me a gratifying account 
of him. I sent a company of them to engage in Govern- 
ment service under Court. All the officers, who have had 
them on service, speak well of them. 

" I long to get settled at my work again. I came here 
hoping to be able to get on to Agra, and consult with my 
brethren there about our future labors, so as to secure, as 
far as possible, unity in our plans. The road to Agra has 
been opened, and G-overnment vans have been running. 
Within a day or two, however, they say it has become 
unsafe, and that rebels are crossing from Oude to get into 
Central India." 

" I am awkwardly situated, having no books, having 
lost all but my Hebrew Bible, Greek Testament, and a 
very few others. I have no lexicons, nor commentaries, or 
other books of reference. However, Jehovah Jireh. For 
the present I shall give myself, as much as possible, to 
native preaching." 

" May the blessed Gospel soon bring peace and happi- 
ness to this now distracted and wretched land. Though 
all is now shaken, yet God's promises remain the same, 
and his foundation stands sure. Mv own work, so far as 



154 RETURNING TO WORK. 

I see, has been destroyed ; but I am not discouraged. Nil 
desjperandum, Jesu diice. The work is not ours, but Grod's. 
It may be his will to burn up all our wood, hay and stub- 
ble, in order to bring out more distinctly and gloriously to 
view, his own immovable foundation, and to render the 
glory of his name illustrious. To his name be all glory. 
Though cast down, we are not destroyed ; though faint, 
we are still pursuing. O that we might be more than ever 
devoted to him, who loved us and gave himself for us." 
On the 19th of Feb., the road being deemed safe, Mr. 
j^-* Owen proceeded in a Government van to Agra. Along the 

way, for twenty miles or more from Cawnpore, he found 
detachments of military, and mounted patrols guarding the 
fords of the Granges, and the country in every direction, 
to keep the Nana and his people from crossing and molest- 
ing the great convoy of ladies, now on the way from Agra 
to Allahabad. " I stopped a few minutes to see the mission 
bungalow at Mynpurie, which has been burnt. The walls 
are good, and the chapel might soon be set right." At Agra 
he met with the missionaries Fullerton, Scott, and Wil- 
liams, and a few other friends, held the desired conference 
in relation to their future operations, examined with them 
the ruins of the Mission premises, and on the 26th left 
Agra, on his way to Futtehgurh, which he reached on the 
evening of the 27th." " I directed the driver to take me 
at once to the Mission premises, at Rakha. As we 
approached, I saw the Mission Church by moonlight at a 
distance. When we came up, I found it all in ruins, only 
the walls and steeple standing. The mission bungalows 
had been burned in June, and their walls, and the walls of 
all the adjoining buildings, present a dismal scene of 
desolation." 



RETURNING TO WORK. 155 

Mr. Owen collected as many as he could of the native 
Christians, encouraged them, and spent the Sabbath and 
held divine service with them. And next Wednesday was 
in Cawnpore, from which he proceeded without impedi- 
ment on his return to Allahabad. 



156 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 



CHAPTER XII. 

RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

On the 1 9th of March, 1858, the capture of Lucknow 
was completed. The rebellion lost the force of concentra- 
tion, and it only remained to reduce the sej)arate groups 
of mutineers who held " some of the strongholds of Cen- 
tral India and Rajpootana," or who roved about the coun- 
try for plunder. By the beginning of April, Mr. Owen 
had again taken up his residence in the school building at 
Allahabad, having repaired it far enough for the accom- 
modation of his wife and himself. " I am preaching," he 
writes, " to the people in the city almost every day, and 
they attend pretty well." " The railway is open as far as 
Futtehpore, and the train runs there and back daily. 
They expec t to open it as far as Cawnpore in June or July, 
so I hope the rebels will not be able to do much more 
mischief in this part of the country. I am expecting 
Gopeenath and his family from Calcutta very soon, to 
make arrangements for beginning the missionary work at 
Futtehpore again. These troubles must not discourage us, 
but we must pray and labor more earnestly than ever 
for these poor heathen. The worse they are, the more 
need have they of the gospel." 

Allahabad was now occupied as the seat of Grovern- 
ment for the Northwestern Provinces; and the erection 
of public buildings, for both civil and military service, 
brought a great increase of European population and ren- 
dered it more than ever important as a missionary station. 
At first the whole work of resumption had to be done by 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 157 

Mr. Owen alone. He had to see to the necessary repairs 
of the buildings which admitted of being repaired, and of 
building new, where the ruin was complete. He gathered 
the little native congregation together and conducted 
regular religious service with them, discharging among 
them the duties of a missionary pastor. As Secretary of 
the North India Bible and Tract Societies, he had to carry 
on a large correspondence. Besides the care of his own 
station he found himself also called upon by the circum- 
stances of the case to act as a transit agent in general for 
boxes and parcels without number coming from Calcutta 
for friends up the country ; while his house and much of 
his time was occupied by a constant succession of friends 
passing up and down. 

In prosecuting the war to its termination in Oude both 
Lord Canning, the Grovernor-G-eneral, and Lord Clyde the 
commander-in-chief, made their head-quarters in Allahabad, 
and with^the forces thereby assembled in that city, mission 
work could be conducted with safety, but in circumstances 
far from favorable to success. 

As late as October 15, Mr. Owen wrote: "The general 
hope is that by the close of this cold weather, order and 
authority will be re-established. The old chief is slow in 
making a beginning. I hear he is not to leave Allahabad 
before the 20th; portions of the trunk road will probably 
become unsafe again for a time. It is supposed by some 
that the rebels, when driven from Oude, may attempt to 
cross the Doab, and effect a junction with Tantia Topi in 
the south. ^ But if we are on the alert, there is no serious 
ground of apprehension regarding the result. 



1) Tantia Topi, in whose hands the mutiny terminated in a kind 
of guerilla warfare in Central India, was captured, tried by court 
martial and hanged, April 18, 1859. 



158 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

"I have been busy repairing our Mission church for 
several months past, and a few weeks since we re-opened 
it for service. The press we shal l not re-establish. Pend- 
ing the decision of that question by our home committee, 
I had one of the old iron presses repaired, and began job 
work at my own risk, with the few types we picked up 
after the mutiny. During the few months of waiting for 
the Committee's decision, the native Christian workmen 
carried it on so vigorously that when the answer came, I 
had in hand, after paying their wages in full, and all the 
other expenses of the establishment, and making up some 
back pay, one thousand Rupees to hand over to the Mission 
Treasury. With the Board's sanction, I have sold the 
remains of the press to the native brethren, and they are 
now carrying it on, on their own account. With their 
savings they are laying in a new stock, and 1 trust they 
will succeed well. I have no pecuniary responsibility in 
regard to them, but assist them in every way I can, as a 
friend." 

Tn reconstructing the mission at Allahabad, it was 
deemed necessary to greatly reduce the extent of oper- 
ations. And Mr. Owen, though he did not change his 
mind respecting the importance of education, now thought 
that, for the time then being, it would be better to have 
the teaching done by an auxiliary society, that all the 
funds of the Foreign Mission Board might be devoted 
entirely to the work of preaching the Gospel. 

As Secretary of the North India Bible and Tract Socie- 
ties, the headquarters of which had been removed from 
Agra to Allahabad, Mr. Owen had much to do in the way 
of supplying the European soldiers in the Northern Prov- 
inces with Bibles, tracts and other Christian books. In 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 159 

that work he was sometimes cheered by receiving letters 
from chaplains and others, telling of the good which those 
books were doing among the soldiers. December 20, 1858, 
he writes, " There has been a revival of religion in one of 
the Highland regiments, and several of the soldiers have 
become hopefully converted. In some of the regiments, 
even on the field of battle, prayer-meetings are regularly 
kept up." 

" I am preparing to reprint my commentary on the 
Psalms, which was burnt here during the mutiny. Much 
of it I have to re- write, but hope to get it ready by and 
by. I am also going on with preaching. We need an out- 
pouring of the Holy Spirit, such as the Church in America 
has been enjoying." "We have a weekly union prayer- 
meeting, attended by Episcopalians, Baptists and Presby- 
terians, held in the Bible Depository. I trust it may re- 
sult in good." 

In January following (1859) Mr. and Mrs. Ownen en- 
joyed a few days relaxation in a visit to their kinsman Mr. 
Arthur Lang, at Lucknow. Under his experienced guid- 
ance the places renowned in the war were visited with a 
still fresh and vivid interest. 

"This morning he took us over Havelock's route, from 
the Char Bagh bridge on the Cawnpore road, down to the 
Residency. What a wonderful place that Residency is. 
I wonder more and more that any one came out of it alive. 
Truly, God has been with us, and we may regard His 
merciful dealings with us as pledges of the good in store 
for India." 

" Oude is now quiet, and we have the blessing of peace 
once more. Mr, Montgomery has done a great work for 
this province, during the few months of his rule. He 



160 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

leaves in February, to the regi-et of all here, to return to 
Lahor, to take Sir John Lawrence's place, as Lieutenant- 
Grovernor of the Punjab. It is wonderful to see how the 
British power has again settled down here, on a firmer 
basis than ever. The greatest energy is apparent in all 
departments." 

"The Commander-in-chief is here, on his way from the 
campaign, which is now over. It has been admirably 
arranged, and well carried out. The old chief will go 
home laden with honors, to the enjoyment of domestic life. 
The troops are going off to their quarters, and everything 
seems settling down to a peace establishment. 

"Tantia Topi, in Central India, may give trouble some 
little time longer. The Nana and Begum have been 
driven off into the Nepal hills. If they are caught the 
Grovernment will likely pardon — perhaps pension — them. 
The Nawab of Furrukhabad, who blew away English 
ladies from guns, has been pardoned." 

"The missions here have made an encouraging begin- 
ning. The Episcopalians occupy the east, and the Metho- 
dists the west side of the city. Crowds of people come 
round the preachers, many from curiosity, preaching being 
a new thing here, some probably from fear of the Euro- 
peans, and possibly a few from a spirit of inquiry. I 
preached, the other evening, a few rods from the Metho- 
dist mission, to a large, motley crowd, numbering, one of 
the missionaries told me, about five hundred. The brethren 
in both missions feel much encouraged. The field is 
indeed wide, and I think a promising one." 

After a few days at Lucknow, Mr. and Mrs. Owen 
returned by way of Cawnpore and Futtehpore. At the 
latter, they partook of the hospitality of Gropeenath, who 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 161 

was busy restoring the mission there. " We are in a tent 
in G-opeenath's compound, near his chapel and bungalow, 
which are rapidly going on to completion." " We are 
gradually rebuilding our mission at Allahabad, Futtehpore 
and Futtehgurh." "Allahabad is undergoing great changes. 
We have now a bi-weekly newspaper pubhshed there, 
called the New Times. The changes at Cawnpore are also 
great, especially the railway station, a magnificent pile of 
buildings, which has sprung up within about eight months. 
But Cawnpore is a desolate gloomy place, especially ren- 
dered such by the recollection of our disasters there." 

"Allahabad, January 29, 1859. We have a united 
Protestant prayer meeting here, held weekly at the Bible 
Depository. It is a Protestant prayer meeting, not Pres- 
byterian, Baptist, or Episcopalian, and it is held at the 
Bible Depository rather than any particular church, the 
Bible being the rallying point for Protestants. We began 
several weeks ago with only five or sis, but with a deter- 
mination to persevere, and now the room can scarcely hold 
all that come. It is conducted in turn by Mr. Mackay, 
the chaplain, Mr. Williams, the Baptist minister, and 
myself. The interest in it seems to be increasing. How 
delightful it is to hear what Grod is doing in America and 
in Great Britain. We communicate, at these meetings, 
the most recent religious intelligence we receive." "At 
several stations in India, these union prayer meetings are 
coming into existence." 

At this time, however busily Mr. Owen was engaged 
in re-organization of the mission, preparing books for 
instruction of Christian converts, Bible and Tract Society 
work, and otherwise, he was not prevented from preaching 
to the people almost every day. 



162 RESTORATION OP THE MISSION. 

The Lodiana Mission, although it suffered severely in 
the mutiny, was not completely broken up, like that of 
Furrukhabad ; an advantage mainly due to the prompt 
and efficient management of Lawrence and Montgomery 
in the Punjab, and the means taken by them to repel the 
advance of mutiny northward, but partly also to the 
policy adopted, after some wavering, by the Sikhs. Mutiny, 
instead of spreading northward over the regions in which 
the Lodiana stations lie, was soon constrained to the south 
east of those northern provinces. Its greatest strength 
and fiercest atrocities were exhibited on the field of the 
Furrukhabad stations, and the adjoining countries of Delhi, 
Eohilcund, and Oude. In the Lodiana stations some 
damage was done to property, and missionary operations 
were obstructed, but no lives were lost. Reconstruction 
was also practicable there at an earlier date. The usual 
routine of labor was resumed soon after October, 1857, 
although for the succeeding year, most of the time had to 
be spent in repairing and in some cases rebuilding from 
the foundation. Occasion was also taken to enlarge the 
accommodations, for which means were supplied from an 
indemnity fund provided by the civil authorities. 

Some stations of that mission had been regularly 
occupied most of the time. Sabbath services had been 
kept up ; and even preaching tours made into the Punjab, 
as early as October, 1857, by Messrs. Thackwell and New- 
ton. The schools at Lodiana continued in operation, 
although with diminished numbers. The printing estab- 
Hshment, greatly damaged in the outbreak, was soon 
repaired, and printing resumed towards the end of 1857. 
The poor house and leper asylum were also continued in 
operation.^ 

1) F. M., May 1859, p. 365. 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 163 

Of the Furrukhabad mission, consisting of six stations, 
at Agra, Mvnpurie, Futtehgurh, Futtehpore, Allahabad 
and Banda, only that of Agra escaped entire deprivation 
of its missionaries. TJllmann of Mjnpurie escaped to 
Agra,^ those of Futtehgurh were all slain, except Walsh who 
was then in America.^ From Futtehpore Gopeenath was 
driven to seek refuge in Calcutta, All, except Owen, were 
sent from Allahabad, in the beginning of the outbreak, 
and the station at Banda was at that crisis occupied by a 
native catechist and teacher with his assistant. The native 
Christians were subjected to great hardships, and some of 
them to death ; and all valuable property was plundered 
or destroyed. 

Resumption of work at those stations was slow, as 
everything had to be recommenced almost from the begin- 
ning, the means were scanty, and the workmen few. 
Besides the three brethren at Agra, and Ullmann who had 
taken refuge with them, the only missionary in any of the 
stations wasOwen. His operations were chiefly on behalf 
of Allahabad, and through G-opeenath, of Futtehpore; 
but he also cooperated with the brethren at Agra, for the 
revival of the stations at Futtehgurh and . Mvnpurie. It 
was for this purpose, that while the conflict of arms was 
still going on, he undertook his journey from Calcutta 
into the very heart of the theatre of war, that he might 
begin work at his own station, and hold conference with 
those brethren, at the earliest date possible. 

In that mission, the stations had all to recommence 
with greatly limited means. At Agra and Allahabad some 
additional inconvenience was also, for a time, created by 
transfer of the seat of government. 

1) F. M., April 1858, p. 351. 2) F. M.,May 1858, p. 377. 



164 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

At Allahabad the Mela was suspended in the first sea- 
son after the mutiny. *' European soldiers stood upon the 
ramparts of the fort, and threatened to shoot any native, 
who might attempt to go and bathe at the sacred place." 
Next year a few assembled ; and the following year the 
number amounted to a few thousands. Mr. Owen began 
to preach among them and found attentive hsteners. 

At Futtehgurh, the only missionaries were Mr. and 
Mrs. J. L. Scott, who had been stationed at Agra before 
and durint? the mutiny. They were also assisted by a 
number of native helpers.' Mr. Fullerton, another of the 
Agra brethren, was, at the close of the mutiny, transferred 
to the second station of Futtehgurh, more properly called 
that of Furrukhabad. Mynpurie remained unoccupied by 
a missionary, the native teacher, Babu Hulas Eoy, alone 
sustaining the cause at that station. In this depleted 
condition were the stations of the southern mission at 
a time, when also it was felt by the missionaries on 
the ground, that at least two more stations, Allygurh 
and Etawah should be added to the number.'^ 

Mr. Owen was enabled to sustain the amount of work, 
which thus fell to his share, only by persevering regularity 
and order. October 31, 1860, he writes: "My health is 
good, never strong, but with care usually comfortable. 
A little imprudence would at any time upset me, and 
render a trip to the hills, or a voyage home necessary. 
People here sometimes wonder at my having been nearly 
twenty years in India and never yet having seen the hills, 
and young missionaries seeing me in such good health, 
after so long an uninterrupted residence on the plains. 



1) F. M., May 1860, p. 379 comp. with July, 1867, p. 35. 

2) F. M., May 1860, p. 401. 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 166 

take courage for themselves." It had however been re- 
commended to him that a trip to the mountains, or his 
native land would be prudent, as a measure of precaution. 
A visit to America had many attractions, which he began 
to cherish the hope of enjoying, but his work in India was 
dear to him, there was yet no person in whose hands he 
could leave it ; and in the end of 1860, his explanation of 
the Psalms for native Christians was being slowly earned 
thr<^ugh the press by the North India Tract Society, he 
could not expect to see it finished before another hot 
season, and then it v\rould be too late to set out on his 
homeward journey. So the project was of necessity post- 
poned for another year. And ere that year had far ad- 
vanced, the news from home was such as to render a 
further postponement advisable. By the improved facilities 
of transport in India, intelligence of the American civil 
war had reached the northern provinces early in the month 
of June, 1861. In that conflict Mr. Owen took a strong 
interest from the beginning on the loyal side, and on 
behalf of the good of the whole country. "The sad state 
of things at home is almost a constant subject of my 
thoughts, and is a subject of my daily prayer." 

The Urdu commentary on the Psalms was completed 
and published the ensuing year, and a corresponding work 
on Isaiah undertaken. 

At the same time, in the famine prevailing In the 
neighborhood of Agra, to which he had been removed, 
Mr. Owen, as a member of the Local Eelief Committee, 
was brought into intimate relations with many of the 
sufferers, and made eye witness of an ap»palling calamity, 
which has so often befallen India, but which no govern- 
ment in that country until the British ever alleviated. 



166 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

Thousands in both city and country were daily fed at the 
public expense, and by private benevolence. The famine 
was most severe in the districts where the mutiny began. 

It was in February, 1861, that Mr. Owen was removed 
to Agra. The missionary brethren wished him to go. 
His own judgment, which was not favorable to the change, 
he yielded to their wishes. On the same occasion he 
resigned his place as Secretary of the North India Bible 
and Tract Societies, which he had held about three years. 
His apprehensions in respect to the change proved to be 
well founded, and at the end of two years he was recalled 
to his old station, to which he returned in the beginning 
of March, 1863, and was soon re-installed in his house by 
the Jumna, which had been rebuilt since its destruction 
in the mutiny. Again he was left in charge of the whole 
mission, the school, two native churches and bazar-preach- 
ing, besides his press work, which he steadily carried for- 
ward. But he remarks: "I have a good staff of native 
preachers and assistants, foremost among whom is my dear 
old pupil Yunas. He has become an excellent man, and 
is greatly respected, not only for his scholarship, but also 
for his high character." Moreover, he had now no Eng- 
lish services to conduct, the church of Scotland having 
appointed a chaplain for the British residents of Presby- 
terian persuasion. Mr. Williamson, the chaplain, and Mr. 
Owen soon became intimately related in their respective 
work. " I occasionally," writes Mr. Owen, "assist him, 
taking charge of his congregation, when he goes to look 
after his Presbyterian flocks at Benares, Cawnpore, and 
Lucknow." 

After a year more of steady, persistent work among his 
beloved converts but all alone as an American Missionary 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 167 

at the station, the desire grew upon him to see once more 
his native land. Writing to his mother May 7, 1864, he 
sajs: "I have long been wishing to go home and pay you 
a visit, before vour departure from this world, but am be- 
ginning sincerely to fear that I shall never enjoy this 
great pleasure. In the present crippled state of our mis- 
sion it would be quite impossible to leave without serious 
injury to the work. Here I am, alone at this station, 
where there should be, at least, three missionaries ; and 
should I go, there is no one to take my place, without 
leaving another station vacant. I do wish the Board 
would send us a good reinforcement soon. There are 
plenty of young men to volunteer for the war ; but there 
seems to. be but few volunteers for the missionary work. 
This should be done, while the other should not be left un- 
done. I have never seen cause to regret that I became a 
missionary. My only cause of regret is that I have not 
been a more faithful and devoted one. When we meet in 
heaven, I will tell you how thankful I have reason to be 
that I was a missionary ; and you will be thankful that 
your son became a missionary. The time passes rapidly, 
and soon we shall be there — soon we shall be with our 
blessed Savior. May he give us grace to be faithful unto 
death." 

Meanwhile the laborious missionary, alone, as such, in 
the management of his station, in the midst of a vast 
populace of Europeans, Hindus and Mohammedans, where 
he felt his sole efforts to be as nothing, and his appeals 
for more workmen unheeded, was not forgotten nor un- 
heeded at home. Fellow workmen were getting ready to 
go out to join him ; and in recognition of his scholarship, 
his Biblical labors, and heroic efforts during the mutiny, 



168 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

and in re-establishing the station, Princeton College at the 
commencement in 1864, conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor in Divinity. 

Within the same year, another of his early friends in 
College, and fellow laborers on Indian ground, fell by the 
hand of violence. In a letter of date June 2, 1864, he 
thus relates the event. Levi Janvier " was one of my 
dearest and most intimate friends in College and since we 
came to India. He had been preaching at a Mela at 
Arraudpoor. He and Mr. Carleton, and Mrs. Carleton and 
Mrs. Janvier with their native assistants had been there 
for several days. Mrs. Janvier and Mrs. Carleton, with 
the assistance of some native Bible women, had obtained 
access to several native women, while the gentlemen had 
labored among the crowds. Nothing unpleasant had 
occurred, no unpleasant discussion of any kind. On the 
contrary, all seemed most respectful and attentive. On 
the last day of the Mela, the 24th of March, Mr. Janvier 
labored very hard. Towards evening he preached on the 
coming of our Lord, and seemed unusually solemn. At 
the close of the day he proposed that they should have the 
communion. The native Christians expressed surprise, as 
it was not Sunday. But he said it would be most appro- 
priate, as they were all to separate on the following morn- 
ing and go different ways. So, at 7 o'clock in the evening, 
they surrounded the communion table in his tent, he leading 
the services, and singing with his usual vigor the hymn 
beginning with the words, — 

" Arasta ho, Ai meri jan," 
(Be ready, O my soul,) 

a Hindustani hymn often sung at our communion seasons. 
At 9 o'clock he went out to make arrangements for march- 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 169 

ing on the following morning, and as he stepped to a cart 
to give an order, a Sikh fanatic suddenly struck him insen- 
sible with two blows on the head, one of which fractured 
his skull over the right eye. The man instantly attempted 
to run away, but was pursued, and seized by the servants 
and native Christians, while Mr. Carleton carried his 
bleeding brother into the tent. He lay groaning, but 
quite unconscious, during the whole night, and expired 
early on the following morning. 

His remains were taken to Hoshiarpore, for a post 
mortem examination, and then sent on to Lodiana, and 
interred by the side of his first wife. He was a man of 
superior scholarship, and of eminent qualifications for his 
great missionary work." 

On the 26th of April, another laborer in the same 
field was slain — shot by his chaukidar at Peshawar. 
•' Isidore Lowenthal, a Polish Jew, by birth, but a natur- 
alized American citizen, had translated the New Testa- 
ment into Pushtu— -the language of the Affghans, and was 
eminent in Oriental scholarship. His death too is a great 
loss to us." 

Mr. Lowenthal was a graduate of Lafayette College, 
and of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, where he 
left a reputation for extraordinary oriental learning. His 
object in making those attainments was to preach the 
gospel among the heathen of the eastern world. A pious 
British Officer in the Indian Army, deeply interested in 
the conversion of the Affghans, offered to the American 
missionaries of the north-west a sum of money to establish 
a mission at Peshawar, with an ultimate view to that 
people, and for the immediate purpose of translating the 
New Testament into their language, furnished the amount of 



170 RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 

seven thousand five hundred dollars. No question could 
be raised as to the propriety of appointing Mr. Lowenthal 
to that service. He commenced, in company with Dr. 
Morrison, at Eawal Pindee, in 1855, but two years after- 
wards, removed to Peshawar. By the middle of April, 
1864, his work was complete — the New Testament was 
rendered into Pushtu, and ready to be sent over the dan- 
gerous border, which no missionary had yet dared to 
pass. No Presbyterian successor has taken the place, at 
which Lowenthal fell. 

Before the same year closed, a nearer calamity clouded 
Dr. Owen's own household. The prudent and affectionate 
companion of his cares and labors for twenty years was 
removed from his side by death. Mrs. Owen was a woman 
of excellent judgment in practical matters, quiet and 
cheerful in manner, of eminent piety, deeply interested in 
her husband's work, an ornament to his household, and as 
he expressed it, "a sweet companion, a stay and support 
and ^reat comfort to me to the last minute of her life." 
She died on the 14th of December, 1864. Her social qual- 
ities had endeared her to the better class of European 
residents, and her unostentatious, but ever active efforts to 
do good among them, to the poor Christian natives. A 
great assemblage of both attended her remains to their 
last resting place. And although her happy death in 
Christ removed from friends the bitterness of sorrow, 
many lamented it as a personal bereavement to themselves. 

During his wife's long illness of more than two months, 
much of Dr. Owen's work stood still, and after her death^ 
his friends, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Lang, then residing at 
Simla, urged him to withdraw from the station for a time, 
and seek recuperation for his own depressed health, in a 
visit to themselves among the hills. Others suggested a 



RESTORATION OF THE MISSION. 171 

visit to England or his native countrv. But when his 
thoughts could be collected again about his work, he felt 
too much the importance of what needed to be done, to 
take anv time from it : and moreover, the season he 
thought unsuitable. Postponing his trip to the hills until 
the hot weather, he at once j^lunged into the round of 
daily missionary duties, and the enterprises bj which he 
hoped to extend the influence of the gospel beyond the 
sound of his own voice. He had already made some pro- 
gress in a second revision of the Hindi Bible, and in 
bringing out an explanation of Isaiah for the purpose of 
instructing the native Christians in the gospel argument 
from Prophecy. He also found much comfort in the daily 
exercises of the week of prayer, which followed soon upon 
his bereavement. Three months later he writes, " It seems 
an age since I saw her, so long has each day appeared 
since her departure. It has been mercifully ordered that 
I have so much work to fully occupy my time and 
thoughts. I would like much to go home at once, but have 
work in hand, which I cannot leave. If spared in health, 
I hope to have all so settled as to be able to leave in about 
two years, to go home for some two years, and then return 
for the rest of my days." 

His home was now lonely and desolate. He removed 
to rooms in the Printing house, where he lived with Mr. 
Wilson, now his colleague, and devoted himself with un- 
remitting assiduity to his tasks. But as the succeeding 
spring advanced, the necessity of that relaxation, so often 
contemplated and so often postponed, began to be apparent 
to himself as well as others. In accordance with the 
urgent advice of friends, a trip was undertaken to the 
mountains, which eventually extended into regions seldom 
visited by Europeans. 



172 A TRIP TO SIMLA. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

A TRIP TO SIMLA. 

•• Walks over high mountains and rugged cliffs, and 
through regions of cold and snow, during the month of 
June, when the plains of India are in a blaze, have given 
health and vigor beyond what I have enjoyed for years 
past. 

" On the 24th of April, 1865, when the heat had already 
become terrific, I left Allahabad for Simla, with a view of 
accompanying friends as far as Chini and Pangi in upper 
Kanawar, fifteen marches from Simla. The journey ulti- 
mately extended as far as Shipki, the frontier town of 
Chinese Thibet, eight marches beyond Pangi. 

" Thp first sight of the Himalaya slightly disappointed 
me, as I expected to see them rising more abruptly from 
the plains, whereas the spurs about Kalka seemed not 
higher than such spurs of the Vindhyas as touch the 
district of Allahabad. With as little delay as possible, 
I prepared for the ascent, and having made all needed 
arrangements, took my seat in that strange conveyance 
called the jampan, a kind of chair carried on men's 
shoulders, peculiar to the hills. Taking a narrow path, 
about six feet wide, which winds about the mountain sides, 
as we ascended, lovely views opened in every direction. 
I was not prepared to see such beautiful verdure on the 
hill sides. This prevails all through the lower Himalaya, 
but in the upper Himalaya, near and above Chini, the 
appearance is quite different. The terrace cultivation seen 
on our way up, in some places rising by regular steps from 



A TRIP TO SIMLA. 173 

the bottom of deep valleys up the sides, nearly to the top, 
is very picturesque; and almost equally so are the path- 
ways made by the cattle around the sides of the hills when 
grazing, rising above each other like steps. By and by 
we came into the midst of wildflowers, when the air was 
filled with fragrance. The oppressive heat of the plains 
was left behind, and I got out and walked a few miles, 
with a new delight. The house of my friends was ap- 
proached by a steep path down the side of a mountain, 
where I at once found myself in a pleasant home, in a 
grove of oak, cedar and rhododendron, with lovely views 
of the snowy range, from the verandah, and in air of 
delicious coolness, where a blanket, instead of a punka, 
was necessary at night, and where broadcloth, instead of 
the white summercloth, was requisite for comfort during 
the day. It was pleasant to see snow again, even at a 
distance, after an interval of a quarter of a century. The 
walks about Simla, at almost every turn, furnished some 
new and interesting views in different directions. The sun, 
from the rarefied atmosphere, at an elevation of 7,000 feet, 
had still great power, althous^h it was delightfully cool in 
the shade. 

" Simla is not a favorable place for a missionary station. 
The native population, attracted here to make as much out 
of the European population as possible, is not a promising 
one to work upon. And the missionary's great personal 
danger would be that of becoming lost in the vortex of 
European society. I found, among old friends and a few 
new ones, a pleasant group of God's dear people, with 
whom in the prayer-meetins^ and the social circle, I enjoyed 
edifying intercourse. I preached a few times among the 
natives, but spent most of my time in a course of reading I 



174 IN THE HIMALAYA. 

had marked out for my holiday. In this way, diversified by 
long pleasant walks and excursions among lovely scenery, 
the time rapidly passed away until the date of our depart- 
ure into the interior of the Himalaya." 

In the succeeding j)art of his tour, Dr. Owen and his 
companions pursued, in general, the course of the Sutlej, 
which traverses circuitously the whole breadth of the 
mountain band, winding round, or cutting through suc- 
cessive ridges, and descending from its sources in Thibet 
to the plains of India, about ten thousand feet. In many 
places its channel is confined to a deep and narrow gorge, 
compelling the traveler to seek his way by mountain passes, 
in some cases of great elevation and difficulty. 

On the 15th of June the party crossed another range 
of the Himalaya, by the Runung Pass, 14,354 feet high, 
from which another commanding view was obtained of the. 
multitude of summits among which they were travelling. 
Their lodging place for the night was Sungnum more than 
3000 feet below. So far on the way. Dr. Owen had preached 
to the people of the villages in Hindi, and found himself 
understood ; but in Sungnum that language was known by 
very few. Next day they had not proceeded far beyond 
Sungnum, when they met Mr. Pagell, a Moravian mission- 
ary, whose station was at Spoe, a place several miles 
further on. Mr. Pagell was astonished to see Europeans 
so far into the heart of the mountains, but greatly pleased 
to see a brother missionary. He was then going to the 
forests for building material, but invited them, on their 
arrival at Spoe, to pitch their tents on his ground. Next 
morning he joined them at breakfast. They now learned 
from him that he had opposition to encounter at Spoe, and 
that a deputation had been sent to the Eaja of Bussahir, 



IN THE HIMALAYA. 175 

through the commissioner at Simla, to effect his removal. 
That morning he had received the good news that the 
Raja was his friend, in a letter to his address the Raja in- 
formed him that he had the delegates flogged, and another 
party, called the Wazir, reprimanded. 

The travelling party accepted Mr. Pagell's invitation 
and pitched their tents on his ground. He had in fact no 
better accommodation for himself, having bought two fields 
from the Raja of Bussahir, he thereon set up his tent for 
himself with his wife and child, until he could erect a house, 
which he should have to build with his own hands. 
The advantages of the site chosen were that it was out of 
the way of rocks that often come rolling down from the 
mountains, out of the way of avalanches, and well supplied 
with snow water. There men, women and children all 
spoke the Thibetan language, and there the solitary mis- 
sionary intended to establish Thibetan vernacular schools. 
Of this Moravian station in the heart of the Himalaya Dr. 
Owen writes: "We spent a Sarbbath, the 18th of June, in 
Spoe, where I heard Mr. Pagell discourse to twenty-two 
people, near his tent, in the Thibetan language. The 
audience was quite different from any I had ever seen, 
some with Chinese, the rest with Tartar features. Spoe is 
the door to Thibet, and here, nominally under protection 
of the Raja of Bussahir, but virtually under the British 
protection, I trust the Moravian Brethren, will in time, 
find an open door into that region and nation. Mr. Pagell 
here, like his brethren in Lahaul, is, four months of the 
year, quite shut in by snow from the outer world. He is 
alone with his wife and child, two hundred miles away 
from any of his brethren." 

The journey and residence in the Himalaya, de- 
signed to be limited to a month, were prolonged through 



176 



IN THE HIMALAYA. 



the hot season and far into the succeeding. Dr. Owen did 
not see Allahabad again until the middle of December. 
With mind and body greatly refreshed, he returned to the 
full routine of duty. 

Next three years were years of almost uninterrupted 
toil. Then, in the midst of frequent preaching in English 
and the native languages, in the church, in the bazars, in 
the school, and at the Melas, with much daily routine 
work, which eats into a man's time and energies indescrib- 
ably, and occasional periods of discouraging despondency, 
his second edition and revision of the Old Testament 
Bible in Hindi, and his exposition of Isaiah, for Hindu- 
stani readers, were completed. 

While thus laboring under a sense of desolateness, he 
formed the acquaintance of one who was to become a new 
Hght to his household, the affectionate and helpful com- 
panion of his later years. On the 16th of April, 1867, he 
was married to Miss Mary Jane Bell, daughter of Dr. D. 
C. Bell, of the Bombay Medical service, but after her 
father's death a resident in the family of Mr. Court, at 
Allahabad. 

" Soon after the revision of the New Testament, a 
Committee, consisting of Messrs. Schneider, Leupoldt, Ken- 
nedy, and Owen, was appointed to revise the Old Testament. 
This edition of two volumes, under the superintendence of 
Dr. Owen, was brought out at the Allahabad Mission Press 
in 1852 and 1855. The edition was destroyed in the Mutiny; 
and now another edition and revision have been completed, 
under the superintendence of the former editor : of this 
the first volume was issued in 1866, and the second in the 
beginning of 1869."' 

1) British and Foreign Bible Society. 



LATER WORK. 177 

Meanwhile the fellow-laborers of his earlier years at 
Allahabad, and other stations of the lower mission had all 
disappeared from the field. Some had returned home, 
and some had gone to their final rest. Of those who had 
been his companions in College, Freeman and Janvier had 
met with violent death. His friends among the civil resi- 
dents and military officers were also diminished in num- 
ber, and their places supplied by strangers. The very 
changes which were improvement upon the city and 
neighborhood, went to remove some features of the place 
which had taken hold of his affections. In the midst of 
his work, when for an hour he occasionally sought relaxa- 
tion in society, the absence of old friends impressed him 
sadly. 



178 WORK COMPLETED. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

WORK COMPLETED. 

The last proof sheet of Dr. Owen's revision of the Hindi 
Old Testament was returned to the printer on the 22nd of 
January, 1869, and that of the commentary on Isaiah, on 
the fifth of February following. On the 9th of the same 
month, at the end of eight and twenty years from his 
arrival in India, he left Allahabad on the long projected 
visit to his native country. It was his purpose to visit on 
the way Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Italy, France, G-ermany 
and the British Isles ; to spend two years upon the jour- 
ney and in the United States, and then to return and de- 
vote the rest of his days to India. The evangelization of 
India was ever uppermost in his mind, first and last of all 
earthly things. 

When it was known in Allahabad that Dr. Owen had 
fully decided upon a visit to Europe and America, various 
testimonials to his industry, learning, missionary zeal and 
social virtues were given by different classes of the resi- 
dents and native Christians. The session of the Scottish 
Presbyterian church for British Residents in Allahabad, 
very warmly expressed their obligations to him for assis- 
tance rendered both in word and deed. And the North 
India Bible Society recognized the value of his Bible work 
by resolutions of thanks and by contributing towards the 
expenses of his contemplated journey. 



WORK COMPLETED. 179 

With profound gratitude to God did Dr. Owen con- 
template the completion of labors, which had so lonjj^ 
occupied his time and thoughts. And now with a sense 
of freedom, as having one week's work done, he turned 
his face buoyantly towards his native land, for day of rest. 
The railway to Bombay was in operation to a great length, 
at both ends, but not yet complete. From Jubulj^ore to 
Nagpore the connection was made by horse dah. At the 
latter place, Dr. and Mrs. Owen spent a pleasant dav in 
visiting the schools of the Free Church of Scotland Mis- 
sion. Next day they proceeded by train to Poona, where 
they spent the Sabbath, and where Dr. Owen preached in 
the Scottish Church. 

'' And now, I am on my way home. What changes 
there smce I left. No mother, no brothers, no sisters. 
My native country has become to me a strange land. In 
looking back upon my career, I feel ashamed of much — 
very much. I love the missionary work, but alas, how 
little have I done. ' To Thee belongeth mercy, but to me 
confusion of face.'" 

At Bombay they were entertained at the house of Dr. 
Wilson, where they met Narayan Sheshadri, and other 
learned Hindus. After visiting the caves and temples of 
Elephanta, and other objects of curiosity in and about 
that great Indo-Anglican city, they embarked on the 
steamer for Suez. On the fifth of March they came to 
anchor in the harbor of Aden. 

The contemplated visit to Egypt, Palestine and G-reece 
was leisurely accomplished, and recorded. The rest of the 
journey was now pursued with little delay, by way of 
Cyprus and Rhodes to Smyrna, thence, after a hasty visit 
to Athens, continued to Constantinople. His journal 



180 WORK COMPLETED. 

abounds with reminiscences of classical reading, and notes 
of missionary enterprise. After a brief stay with the mis- 
sionaries at Constantinople, he went by the Black Sea to 
Varna, and up the Danube to Vienna, where he was joined 
by his son, who had for some time been pursuing his 
studies in Germany. The little party now fell into the 
coDimon routes of travel, by Trieste, Venice, Northern 
Italy, Switzerland, and the Ehine, and after a short resi- 
dence at Bonn, to Scotland. On the 20th of July they 
arrived in Edinburgh, intending to spend the autumn and 
winter among friends in that city. Next summer they 
would all go to the United States, and in the end of that 
year return to India. 

In the society of a widening circle of learned and pious 
people, the succeeding autumn and winter passed by, not 
without profit, spiritual and intellectual. Nor did the 
zealous missionary fail to avail himself of occasions, by 
public addresses and otherwise, to quicken a Christian 
interest in the work of sending the gospel to the heathen. 
About the beginning of April following, with Mrs. 
Owen, he went into England, and spent a few weeks at Har- 
row, and in the vicinity, among friends, the family of Mr. 
Lang, and others, with whom he had been pleasantly asso^ 
elated many years before in India. With all the interest 
of a copious reader of English historical literature, he 
visited London, Windsor, Eton, and the Universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford, in the latter making among other 
highly esteemed acquaintances, that of Prof. Max Miiller. 
In May he was again in Edinburgh, in time to attend the 
sessions of the G-eneral Assemblies, before one of which, 
that of the Free Church, he delivered an address on the 
subject ever dearest to his heart. 



WORK COMPLETED, 181 

On the evening of July 17th, he wrote, "At this quiet 
hour, at the close of a peaceful day during which a happv 
Sabbath calm has prevailed, it is difficult to realize that on 
the other side of the channel two powerful nations are 
rushing to war." Mrs. Owen had been absent for a short 
time in G-ermany. In view of the declaration of war, 
although her safety was in no danger, there was cause for 
anxiety about her being detained. She returned imme- 
diately. In recording his thanks to Grod for her safe 
restoration to the British side of the sea, he adds : "It 
IS not yet a week since the declaration of war, though it 
seems more like a month, so many events have been 
crowded into this short period. The Emperor chose the 
Sabbath for sending his declaration of war to Berlin. On 
the 19th Prevost Paradol committed suicide in Washing- 
ton, shooting himself through the heart. This terrible 
war is bringing ruin to thousands, apart from the suffering 
and loss of life to tens of thousands, victims of an un- 
principled man." It was not then publicly known that 
the motives to the attack on Prussia did not originate 
with Napoleon, who bore for a time the reproach of pro- 
voking a disastrous conflict for a ridiculously inadequate 
cause. 

The visit to the United States was now postponed until 
the hot weather should be over: and although Dr. Owen 
was apparently in good health, it was thought that he 
might lay in a supply of energy, for his contemplated 
future labors in India, by a residence of a few weeks in 
the bracing air of the Scottish Highlands. Accordingly the 
summer was spent in Scotland. On the 6th of September 
he was at Corriesyke, Lochgoilhead, with his family. 

" We came here on the 3rd of August. Since that date 
wonderful events have taken place. Watching these from 



182 WORK COMPLETED. 

day to day has been a matter of absorbing attention. The 
Emperor's pantomime at Saarbriiek, on the 2nd of August, 
the terrible battles of Wessenburg and Forbach, on the 
sixth, in which the armies of MacMahon and Froisard were 
completely broken and scattered, and those near Metz, &c.» 
on the fourth, sixteenth, and eighteenth, in which Bazaine 
was driven back into Metz, and those in the neighborhood 
of Montmedy and Sedan, last week, on the 29th, 30th, 31st 
of August, and the 1st of September, in which the army of 
MacMahon was completely driven back upon Sedan, and 
surrounded, the surrender of the Emperor on the 2nd, 
and capitulation of MacMahon' s army. These occurrences 
and their accompaniments have made the month one of 
the most eventful in history. In this qniet retreat, at the 
head of this beautiful loch, they have been studied and 
thought over, and talked over, sometimes climbing the 
hills or boating on the loch, or walking, or sitting on its 
shores. The invigorating fresh air has given new life to 
us all." 

These words were the last D r. Owen was ever to enter 
in his journal. A few days later, his health began to 
decline ; and upon his return to Edinburgh, became 
gradually worse. This part of the narrative can be best 
told in the words of one who watched over him with the 
tender solicitude of appreciating love. 

" Throughout his trying illness he exhibited a patient, 
unselfish spirit. He felt that his end might be near. But 
the thought gave no alarm, though it occasioned deep 
solemnity of spirit, and increased pray erf ulness. He had 
long walked with G-od, had devoted his life to His service, 
and was ready, his lamp lit and his loins girt, waiting for 
his Lord. Though ready to depart, yet he had for many 



WORK COMPLETED. 183 

days prayed for recovery, and said to me, 'I shall be 
thankful if Grod spares me to work a little longer in his 
vineyard, and to be with you. But perhaps He has done 
with me for this world.' At another time, when speaking 
of his mission work, he said, ' If I had to choose over again 
now, I should choose as I have done.' Again, with calm 
delight, he would say, as he lay with uplifted eyes, 'Absent 
from the body^ — -present with the Lord — Forever — ^with — 
the Lord,' pausing on each word. 'How delightful it will 
be to he forever with the Lord.' 

"On Saturday evening, the 3rd of December, he seemed 
to be very weak, and had a good deal of pain, and often, 
during the night, exclaimed, "Come, Lord Jesus, come 
quickly," and he was much in silent prayer. Still we did 
not think his end was so near. It was not until about 
eight o'clock next morning — Sabbath, the 4th December — 
that the Doctor, on being called to see him, spoke to me 
the bitter words, " He cannot live through the day," and 
then I seemed to realize the truth. Harry came, and I 
took his tenderly loved babe to receive her last kiss. So 
all his dear ones were around him. God graciously granted 
that his complaint should cease to trouble him, and he 
gathered strength to speak to all around him ; and to send 
loving messages to many in America and India. We were 
privileged to witness from that time till 4 P. M., when his 
gentle spirit fled away, the power of the peace-speaking 
blood of Christ, the Christian's victory over Death, through 
Christ his risen Saviour. Among those he particularly 
mentioned on his death bed, were Dr. Moffat, at Princeton, 
his earliest and dearest friend, and the venerable Dr. 
Hodge. To the native Christians at Allahabad, he sent 
the following, "Tell them to be steadfast, unmovable. 



184 WORK COMPLETED. 

always abounding in the work of the Lord, not seeking 
merely after worldly advancement, but seeking first the ser- 
vice of Christ." Words of kindness, love and blessing were 
spoken to those around him. Whilst full of humility and 
simple trust in his Savior's merits alone, yet in faith and 
with joy he could say, "I have fought the good fight, I 
have finished my course, I have kept the faith ; henceforth 
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness." "We 
know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were 
dissolved, we have a building of Grod, a house not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens." "Unto me, who am 
less than the least of all saints, hath this grace been given 
that I should preach among the G-entiles the unsearchable 
riches of Christ. But I am a poor wretched creature in 
myself. Oh, that I had been more faithful." As the bells 
were ringing for forenoon service, Dr. Candlish came in, 
and after saying a few words, repeated, "I have fought the 
good fight," &c. "I thank Gi-od," he exclaimed *with much 
emphasis. Dr. Candlish's comforting words and his prayer 
he enjoyed much, and on parting said, "Farewell, dear 
brother, we may not meet again in the flesh." "No," 
replied Dr. Candlish, "but it may not be long." 

An hour later, Dr. Duff received the following note. 

Sabbath Morning 10:30. 
My Dear Dr. Duff :— 

I am sitting beside Dr. Oweu, who is drawing very near his 
end— in great— in sweetest peace. He wants much to see you 
before his departure, if it is at all within your power, and the 
sooner the better. For our beloved friend will not be long on 
this side Jordan. I hope you will be able to come at once. 

Yours, &c., 

Robert S. Candlish. 



WORK COMPLETED. 185 

No time was lost in respondinpf to that invitation. Dr. 
Duff subsequently wrote as follows : '* I found our dear 
friend very weak, but in perfect consciousness. He warmly 
grasped my hand, saying how glad he was I had come, 
saying it was kind, &c. Blessed words of Scripture he 
responded to. Every now and then he said "Jesus, 
blessed Jesus " — almost in a gentle rapture. After pray- 
ing with him, he fell into a tranquil slumber. So I left 
for my work, rejoicing at the grace of G-od. I afterwards 
learned that our beloved friend gently fell asleep in Jesus, 
at 4 o'clock." 

"I fear," says one who knew Dr. Owen well, "that it 
will be impossible to have a faithful record of his unob- 
trusive, though useful and laborious life, and of his manly, 
his sweet simplicity of character, and his childlike trust 
in his Grod and Savior, his eye single to the glory of G-od, 
and advancement of his Kingdom. All praise be to God's 
grace in him." 

When the news of Dr. Owen's death reached Allaha- 
bad, the Eev. J. Williamson, Chaplain of the Scottish 
Established Church in that city, preached a sermon before 
his congregation from 2 Tim. iv. 7, "I have fought the 
good fight, &c.," from which 1 am permitted to make the 
following quotation. 

** Since last I preached in this pulpit, there has come 
to us the intelligence that one who regularly worshipped in 
this church, who frequently dispensed to you the bread of 
life, has been taken from us, regarding whom I can with 
perfect confidence say, that through God's grace, he could 
give this testimony, "I have fought the good fight." I 
refer to our friend Dr. Owen. For 28 years, without once 
leaving this country, he had borne the burden and heat of 



186 



WORK COMPLETED. 



the day. And much useful, permanent work had our 
friend crowded into that period. He arrived in this 
country with a high reputation for solid scholarship, and 
genuine piety, which his subsequent career fully justified. 
From his first landing in India he threw himself heartily 
into mission work. He acquired soon a thorough and 
accurate knowledge of the vernaculars. Whatsoever his 
hand found to do in mission work, that he did with all his 
might. We find him for some time superintending the 
large Jumna school, which he raised to the highest state 
of efficiency ; and there are now native Christian ministers, 
and catechists who testify the deep obligations under which 
Dr. Owen laid them when his pupils, bj giving them a 
good solid, high class education, fitting them for being 
workmen that need not be ashamed in the field of labor 
in which they have been called to work, He willingly 
responded to the request of the North India Bible Society's 
Committee to assist in bringing out a new edition of the 
Hindi Old Testament ; a work which was accomplished to 
the entire satisfaction of the Christian public in Northern 
India. We find him, after the mutiny of 1857, acting as 
secretary of the North India Bible and Tract Societies, 
making every exertion to enlist the sympathies of the 
Christians in these provinces in the important work of 
replacing the large stock of Scriptures and religious books 
that had then been destroyed. Later still, when another 
edition of the Hindi Old Testament was required, all eyes 
were turned towards him, as the missionary best qualified 
to bring out the work, — a work which he had just com- 
pleted when he left for England. 

"Again his ripe scholarship, and acoustic knowledge of 
Urdii was brought into requisition to bring out exhaustive 



WORK COMPLETED. 187 

commentaries in Urdii on the Psalms and Isaiah, which are 
an immense boon to the native Christian church. No more 
will the living voice of our dear friend be heard by the 
natives of this country, on whose behalf he was willing to 
spend and be spent ; but through his Hindi Old Testa- 
ment, and commentaries, he being dead yet speaketh, in 
exhorting the heathen to turn from dumb idols to serve 
the living God : the Mohammedans to believe in Jesus, as 
the only true prophet, who can reveal the will of God for 
their salvation, and in building up the native Christians 
in faith and holiness. 

'* You know what a warm interest Dr Owen took in 
everything that concerned our English congregation. 
When I first came to Allahabad, he cheerfully handed 
over to me the care of the church ; and as an office bearer, 
was always ready to strengthen my hands, and encourage 
my heart in the work to which our Heavenly Father had 
here called me. He frequently preached to you, and his 
great theme was "Christ crucified." He was never absent 
from his pew on Sabbath, except when calls of necessity 
and mercy prevented him from worshipping with us, and 
as our communion season came round, and he gave into 
our hands the elements representing Christ's broken body 
and shed blood, we all felt that he who then bore the 
vessels of the sanctuary, was a true son of Aaron, — a 
priest of the living God. You know that it was owing to 
him that our prayer meeting was started in 1858, — that 
meeting which perhaps more than any other means of 
grace has fostered the spiritual life of our cong-regation. 
Not long before he left us, in order to connect you more 
directly as a congregation with some definite missionary 
work, he established the mission school in our Kutra 



188 WORK COMPLETED. 

church, which was to be supj^orted by you. And the need 
for this school is shown by the fact that it is attended by 
about 150 boys, who there receive a good plain religious 
education. 

'* As a member of our community, Dr. Owen was uni- 
versally respected and beloved, and while scoffers would 
point to the inconsistent conduct of this and that profes- 
sor of religion, there was never breathed a whisper of de- 
traction against him." " It was a privilege for us to have 
in our midst one whose acted motto was, ' For me to live 
is Christ.' He has left us an example that we should fol- 
low his sieps. Let us all seek for grace to use faithfully 
the talents entrusted to us. So that when our race is run, 
our warfare is ended, we can take up these grand words of 
the apostle, ' I have fought a good fight, I have finished 
my course, I have kept the faith.' " 

Although the coincidence is not strange that the same 
passage of Scripture occurred to Dr. Candlish upon his 
last visit to the death bed of his friend, and to Dr. 
Duff three hours later, and was chosen by Mr. William- 
son for the memorial sermon in India, it certainly testifies 
to a common impression that Dr. Owen's missionary life 
had been faithful, laborious and efficient. 

To his large christian charity, ever ready to embrace 
true followers of the Lord under any name, many testi- 
monies might be quoted. 

The Eev. G-eorge Smith, Editor of the *' Frie7id of 
India,'* writes of him as "an ornament to our common 
Presbyterianism, while so catholic as to belong to the 
whole church." 

And the Eev. Theodore S. Wynkoop, a missionary for 
several years at the station with which Dr. Owen was so 



WORK COMPLETED. 189 

long connected, in a letter to the ''Presbyterian," writes 
as follows. 

" When I tirst arrived in Allahabad, in January, 1869, 
Dr. Owen was completing his preparations for leaving 
India for a time. He was looking fresh and strong, with 
every appearance of perfect health — although, as appeared 
after his death, the disease, which developed into abscess 
of the liver, had already come upon him. He was a man 
of fine personal appearance ; and none who knew him will 
soon forget the grace and dignity of his bearing, the 
sweetness and courtesy of his manner. It was with regret 
that we parted with him, for what we hoped would be but 
an absence of a year or two." 

" Throughout all his missionary life Dr. Owen took a 
deep interest in the education of young men. He taught 
in the mission schools, be gathered young men about him, 
and did all that was in his power for their intellectual and 
moral improvement ; and there are many now, both among 
our native Christians, and those who have not professed 
the faith, who owe their training and j^osition, under God, 
to him." *' He was especially interested in the native 
church, and ever sought its welfare. A man of marked 
scholarly tastes and accomplishments, he became unusually 
well versed in the languages of Hindustan, as well as in 
the G-reek and particularly the Hebrew. He was thus 
fitted for that most useful and ennobhng of all uninspired 
tasks — the translation of the Word of God. He was 
largely concerned, some years ago, in the revision of the 
first translation of the Hindi Bible ; and at the time of 
his leaving India had just carried through the press a still 
further revision of the Old Testament in Hindi, which was 
entrusted to him alone. This work gave great satisfaction 



190 WORK COMPLETED. 

to the Committee of the North India Bible Society. I was 
present at a meeting of that committee in January, 1869, 
at which a purse of five hundred rupees was presented to 
him by them as a token of their appreciation of his services. 
This was entirely unexpected to Dr. Owen, and was re- 
ceived by him with much emotion. The amount was suffi- 
cient to enable him on his homeward route to visit Jeru- 
salem and the Holy Land, a visit which fulfilled the desires 
of many years and gave him keen delight. 

" Dr. Owen's translation of the Book of Psalms into 
the Hindustani language is regarded as a very able and 
useful work. He also published, besides smaller writings, 
a Treatise on Theology in the Hindustani, which is used as 
a text-book for all our students of theology, as are also his 
Commentaries on the Book of Psalms and the Prophecies 
of Isaiah. To these, he devoted much time and labor, and 
they will remain as standard volumes in the Christian lit- 
erature of India." 

The character of Dr. Owen has been delineated in his 
work. Its principal feature, from youth to age, was single- 
hearted consecration to the Lord in the preaching of His 
G-ospel to the Heathen. 



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